PROCMAP(1) OpenBSD Reference Manual PROCMAP(1)
procmap - display process memory map
procmap [-AadlmPsv] [-D number] [-M core] [-N system] [-p pid] [pid ...]
The procmap utility lists the virtual memory mappings underlying the
given process. The start address of each entry is always given, and,
depending on the options given, other information such as the end
address, the underlying file's device and inode numbers, and various
protection information will be displayed, along with the path to the
file, if such data is available.
By default, procmap displays information for its parent process, so that
when run from a shell prompt, the shell's memory information is
displayed. If other PIDs are given as arguments on the command line,
information for those processes will be printed also. If the special PID
of 0 is given, then information for the kernel's memory map is printed.
The options are as follows:
-A Print more detailed information on anonymous map usage.
-a Display ``all'' information from the process's memory map.
This output mode is an amalgam of the contents of the
Solaris, Linux, and OpenBSD style output modes.
-D number Enable various debug facilities. The number is a bit mask
of the values:
1 dump the process's vmspace structure
2 dump the process's vm_map structure
4 dump the vm_map.header structure
8 dump each vm_map_entry in its entirety
16 dump the namei cache as it is traversed
-d Dumps the vm_map and vm_map_entry structures in a style
similar to that of ddb(4). When combined with the -v
option, the device number, inode number, name, vnode
addresses, or other identifying information from the
vm_map_entry fields will be printed.
-l Dumps information in a format like the contents of the maps
pseudo-file under the /proc file system which was, in turn,
modeled after the similarly named entry in the Linux /proc
file system. When combined with the -v option, identifiers
for all entries are printed.
-M core Extract values associated with the name list from the
specified core instead of the default /dev/kmem.
-m Dumps information in the same format as the map pseudo-file
of the /proc file system. When the -v option is also given,
device number, inode number, and filename or other
identifying information is printed.
-N system Extract the name list from the specified system instead of
the running kernel.
-P Causes procmap to print information about itself.
-p pid Tells procmap to print information about the given process.
If -p pid occurs last on the command line, the -p is
-s The Solaris style output format, modeled after the Solaris
command ``pmap''. This is the default output style.
-v Verbose output. When used with -d, -l, or -m, more
information is printed, possibly including device and inode
numbers, file path names, or other identifying information.
If specified more than once, a `*' will be printed in
between two entries that are not adjacent, making the visual
identification of spaces in the process's map easier to see.
The -P and -p options override each other, so the last one to appear on
the command line takes effect. If you do wish to see information about
procmap and another process as the same time, simply omit the -p and
place the extra PID at the end of the command line.
The procmap utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.
While the meaning most of the output is self-evident, some pieces of it
may appear to be a little inscrutable.
Here a portion of the default output from procmap being run at a sh(1)
prompt shows the starting address of the map entry, the size of the map
entry, the current protection level of the map entry, and either the name
of the file backing the entry or some other descriptive text.
08048000 420K read/exec /bin/sh
080B1000 8K read/write /bin/sh
080B3000 28K read/write [ anon ]
080BA000 16K read/write/exec [ heap ]
When the ddb(4) output style is selected, the first thing printed is the
contents of the vm_map structure, followed by the individual map entries.
$ procmap -d
MAP 0xcf7cac84: [0x0->0xbfbfe000]
#ent=8, sz=34041856, ref=1, version=20, flags=0x21
- 0xcfa3a358: 0x8048000->0x80b1000: obj=0xcf45a8e8/0x0, amap=0x0/0
submap=F, cow=T, nc=T, prot(max)=5/7, inh=1, wc=0, adv=0
The value of the flags field (in hexadecimal) is taken from the include
VM_MAP_PAGEABLE 0x01 ro: entries are pageable
VM_MAP_INTRSAFE 0x02 ro: interrupt safe map
VM_MAP_WIREFUTURE 0x04 rw: wire future mappings
VM_MAP_BUSY 0x08 rw: map is busy
VM_MAP_WANTLOCK 0x10 rw: want to write-lock
The ``submap'', ``cow'', and ``nc'' fields are true or false, and
indicate whether the map is a submap, whether it is marked for copy on
write, and whether it needs a copy. The ``prot'' (or protection) field,
along with ``max'' (maximum protection allowed) are made up of the
following flags from <uvm/uvm_extern.h>:
UVM_PROT_READ 0x01 read allowed
UVM_PROT_WRITE 0x02 write allowed
UVM_PROT_EXEC 0x04 execute allowed
The ``obj'' and ``amap'' fields are pointers to, and offsets into, the
underlying uvm_object or vm_amap object. The value for resident is
always unknown because digging such information out of the kernel is
beyond the scope of this application.
The two output styles that mirror the contents of the /proc file system
appear as follows:
$ procmap -m
0x8048000 0x80b1000 r-x rwx COW NC 1 0 0
0x80b1000 0x80b3000 rw- rwx COW NC 1 0 0
0x80b3000 0x80ba000 rw- rwx COW NNC 1 0 0
0x80ba000 0x80be000 rwx rwx COW NNC 1 0 0
$ procmap -l
08048000-080b1000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 70173 /bin/sh
080b1000-080b3000 rw-p 00068000 00:00 70173 /bin/sh
080b3000-080ba000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
080ba000-080be000 rwxp 00000000 00:00 0
Here the protection and maximum protection values are indicated with `r',
`w', and `x' characters, indicating read permission, write permission,
and execute permission, respectively. The ``COW'', ``NC'', and ``NNC''
values that follow indicate, again, that the map is marked for copy on
write and either needs or does not need a copy. It is also possible to
see the value ``NCOW'' here, which indicates that an entry will not be
copied. The three following numbers indicate the inheritance type of the
map, the wired count of the map, and any advice value assigned via
In the second form, the permissions indicated are followed by a `p' or
`s' character indicating whether the map entry is private or shared (copy
on write or not), and the numbers are the offset into the underlying
object, the device and numbers of the object if it is a file, and the
path to the file (if available).
As noted above (see section DESCRIPTION), the ``all'' output format is an
amalgam of the previous output formats.
$ procmap -a
Start End Size Offset rwxpc RWX I/W/A ...
08048000-080b0fff 420k 00000000 r-xp+ (rwx) 1/0/0 ...
In this format, the column labeled ``rwxpc'' contains the permissions for
the mapping along with the shared/private flag, and a character
indicating whether the mapping needs to be copied on write (`+') or has
already been copied (`-') and is followed by a column that indicates the
maximum permissions for the map entry. The column labeled ``I/W/A''
indicates the inheritance, wired, and advice values for the map entry, as
ls(1), madvise(2), mmap(2), kvm(3), ddb(4), mount_procfs(8), namei(9),
The procmap utility first appeared in OpenBSD 3.5. It was derived from
the NetBSD utility known as ``pmap''.
The procmap utility and documentation was written by Andrew Brown
Very little will work unless procmap is reading from the correct kernel
in order to retrieve the proper symbol information.
Since processes can change state while procmap is running, some of the
information printed may be inaccurate. This is especially important to
consider when examining the kernel's map, since merely executing procmap
will cause some of the information to change.
The pathnames to files backing certain vnodes (such as the text and data
sections of programs and shared libraries) are extracted from the
kernel's namei cache which is considerably volatile. If a path is not
found there in its entirety, as much information as was available will be
printed. In most cases, simply running ls(1) with the expected path to
the file will cause the information to be reentered into the cache.
The Solaris version (``pmap'') has some interesting command line flags
that would be nice to emulate here. In particular, the -r option that
lists a process's reserved addresses, and the -x option that prints
resident/shared/private mapping details for each entry.
Some of the output modes can be or are wider than the standard 80 columns
of a terminal. Some sort of formatting might be nice.
OpenBSD 5.1 September 3, 2011 OpenBSD 5.1
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