lstat



STAT(2)                   OpenBSD Programmer's Manual                  STAT(2)


NAME

     stat, lstat, fstatat, fstat - get file status


SYNOPSIS

     #include <sys/stat.h>

     int
     stat(const char *path, struct stat *sb);

     int
     lstat(const char *path, struct stat *sb);

     int
     fstat(int fd, struct stat *sb);

     #include <sys/stat.h>
     #include <fcntl.h>

     int
     fstatat(int fd, const char *path, struct stat *sb, int flag);


DESCRIPTION

     The stat() function obtains information about the file pointed to by
     path.  Read, write, or execute permission of the named file is not
     required, but all directories listed in the path name leading to the file
     must be searchable.

     The lstat() function is identical to stat() except when the named file is
     a symbolic link, in which case lstat() returns information about the link
     itself, not the file the link references.

     The fstatat() function is equivalent to either the stat() or lstat()
     function depending on the value of flag (see below), except that where
     path specifies a relative path, the file whose information is returned is
     determined relative to the directory associated with file descriptor fd
     instead of the current working directory.

     If fstatat() is passed the special value AT_FDCWD (defined in <fcntl.h>)
     in the fd parameter, the current working directory is used and the
     behavior is identical to a call to stat() or lstat(), depending on
     whether or not the AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW bit is set in flag.

     Values for flag are constructed by bitwise-inclusive ORing flags from the
     following list defined in <fcntl.h>:

           AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW  If path names a symbolic link, then the status
                                of the symbolic link is returned.

     The fstat() function obtains the same information about an open file
     known by the file descriptor fd.

     The sb argument is a pointer to a stat() structure as defined by
     <sys/stat.h> (shown below) and into which information is placed
     concerning the file.

     struct stat {
         dev_t      st_dev;    /* inode's device */
         ino_t      st_ino;    /* inode's number */
         mode_t     st_mode;   /* inode protection mode */
         nlink_t    st_nlink;  /* number of hard links */
         uid_t      st_uid;    /* user ID of the file's owner */
         gid_t      st_gid;    /* group ID of the file's group */
         dev_t      st_rdev;   /* device type */
         struct timespec st_atim;  /* time of last access */
         struct timespec st_mtim;  /* time of last data modification */
         struct timespec st_ctim;  /* time of last file status change */
         off_t      st_size;   /* file size, in bytes */
         int64_t    st_blocks; /* blocks allocated for file */
         u_int32_t  st_blksize;/* optimal blocksize for I/O */
         u_int32_t  st_flags;  /* user defined flags for file */
         u_int32_t  st_gen;    /* file generation number */
     };

     The time-related fields of struct stat are represented in struct timespec
     format, which has nanosecond precision.  However, the actual precision is
     generally limited by the file system holding the file.  The fields are as
     follows:

     st_atim     Time when file data was last accessed.  Set when the file
                 system object was created and updated by the utimes(2) and
                 read(2) system calls.

     st_mtim     Time when file data was last modified.  Changed by the
                 truncate(2), utimes(2), and write(2) system calls.  For
                 directories, changed by any system call that alters which
                 files are in the directory, such as the unlink(2), rename(2),
                 mkdir(2), and symlink(2) system calls.

     st_ctim     Time when file status was last changed (inode data
                 modification).  Changed by the chmod(2), chown(2), link(2),
                 rename(2), unlink(2), utimes(2), and write(2) system calls.

     In addition, all the time fields are set to the current time when a file
     system object is first created by the mkdir(2), mkfifo(2), mknod(2),
     open(2), and symlink(2) system calls.

     For compatibility with previous standards, st_atime, st_mtime, and
     st_ctime macros are provided that expand to the tv_secs member of their
     respective struct timespec member.  Deprecated macros are also provided
     for some transitional names: st_atimensec, st_mtimensec, st_ctimensec,
     st_atimespec, st_mtimespec, and st_ctimespec

     The size-related fields of the struct stat are as follows:

     st_blksize     The optimal I/O block size for the file.

     st_blocks      The actual number of blocks allocated for the file in
                    512-byte units.  As short symbolic links are stored in the
                    inode, this number may be zero.

     The status information word st_mode has the following bits:

           #define S_IFMT   0170000  /* type of file mask */
           #define S_IFIFO  0010000  /* named pipe (fifo) */
           #define S_IFCHR  0020000  /* character special */
           #define S_IFDIR  0040000  /* directory */
           #define S_IFBLK  0060000  /* block special */
           #define S_IFREG  0100000  /* regular */
           #define S_IFLNK  0120000  /* symbolic link */
           #define S_IFSOCK 0140000  /* socket */
           #define S_ISUID  0004000  /* set-user-ID on execution */
           #define S_ISGID  0002000  /* set-group-ID on execution */
           #define S_ISVTX  0001000  /* save swapped text even after use */
           #define S_IRWXU  0000700  /* RWX mask for owner */
           #define S_IRUSR  0000400  /* R for owner */
           #define S_IWUSR  0000200  /* W for owner */
           #define S_IXUSR  0000100  /* X for owner */
           #define S_IRWXG  0000070  /* RWX mask for group */
           #define S_IRGRP  0000040  /* R for group */
           #define S_IWGRP  0000020  /* W for group */
           #define S_IXGRP  0000010  /* X for group */
           #define S_IRWXO  0000007  /* RWX mask for other */
           #define S_IROTH  0000004  /* R for other */
           #define S_IWOTH  0000002  /* W for other */
           #define S_IXOTH  0000001  /* X for other */

     The following macros test a file's type.  If the file is of that type, a
     non-zero value is returned; otherwise, 0 is returned.

           S_ISBLK(st_mode m)  /* block special */
           S_ISCHR(st_mode m)  /* char special */
           S_ISDIR(st_mode m)  /* directory */
           S_ISFIFO(st_mode m) /* fifo */
           S_ISLNK(st_mode m)  /* symbolic link */
           S_ISREG(st_mode m)  /* regular file */
           S_ISSOCK(st_mode m) /* socket */

     For a list of access modes, see <sys/stat.h>, access(2), and chmod(2).


RETURN VALUES

     Upon successful completion a value of 0 is returned.  Otherwise, a value
     of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.


ERRORS

     stat(), lstat(), and fstatat() will fail if:

     [ENOTDIR]          A component of the path prefix is not a directory.

     [ENAMETOOLONG]     A component of a pathname exceeded NAME_MAX
                        characters, or an entire path name exceeded PATH_MAX
                        characters.

     [ENOENT]           A component of name does not exist or name is the
                        empty path.

     [EACCES]           Search permission is denied for a component of the
                        path prefix.

     [ELOOP]            Too many symbolic links were encountered in
                        translating the pathname.

     [EFAULT]           sb or name points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]              An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
                        the file system.

     Additionally, fstatat() will fail if:

     [EINVAL]           The value of the flag argument was neither zero nor
                        AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW.

     [EBADF]            The path argument specifies a relative path and the fd
                        argument is neither AT_FDCWD nor a valid file
                        descriptor.

     [ENOTDIR]          The path argument specifies a relative path and the fd
                        argument is a valid file descriptor but it does not
                        reference a directory.

     [EACCES]           The path argument specifies a relative path but search
                        permission is denied for the directory which the fd
                        file descriptor references.

     fstat() will fail if:

     [EBADF]            fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EFAULT]           sb points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]              An I/O error occurred while reading from the file
                        system.


SEE ALSO

     chmod(2), chown(2), utimes(2), symlink(7)


STANDARDS

     Previous versions of the system used different types for the st_dev,
     st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev, st_size, st_blksize, and st_blocks fields.

     The fstat(), fstatat(), lstat(), and stat() functions are intended to
     conform to IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'').


HISTORY

     The stat() and fstat() system calls first appeared in Version 1 AT&T
     UNIX.  The <sys/stat.h> header file and the struct stat were introduced
     in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

     An lstat() function call appeared in 4.2BSD.  The fstatat() function
     appeared in OpenBSD 5.0.


CAVEATS

     The file generation number, st_gen, is only available to the superuser.

     Certain programs written when the timestamps were just of type time_t
     assumed that the members were consecutive (and could therefore be placed
     directly to utimes(2)).  The transition to timestamps of type struct
     timespec broke them irrevocably.


BUGS

     Applying fstat() to a pipe or socket fails to fill in a unique device and
     inode number pair.  Applying fstat() to a socket also fails to fill in
     the time fields.

OpenBSD 5.4                      April 1, 2013                     OpenBSD 5.4

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