URAL(4) OpenBSD Programmer's Manual URAL(4)
ural - Ralink Technology USB IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network device
ural* at uhub? port ?
The ural driver supports USB 2.0 wireless adapters based on the Ralink
The RT2500USB chipset is the first generation of 802.11b/g adapters from
Ralink. It consists of two integrated chips, an RT2570 MAC/BBP and an
RT2526 radio transceiver.
These are the modes the ural driver can operate in:
BSS mode Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when
associating with an access point, through which all
traffic passes. This mode is the default.
IBSS mode Also known as IEEE ad-hoc mode or peer-to-peer mode. This
is the standardized method of operating without an access
point. Stations associate with a service set. However,
actual connections between stations are peer-to-peer.
Host AP In this mode the driver acts as an access point (base
station) for other cards.
monitor mode In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
associating with an access point. This disables the
internal receive filter and enables the card to capture
packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have
access to, or to scan for access points.
The ural driver can be configured to use Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
or Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK). WPA is the de facto
encryption standard for wireless networks. It is strongly recommended
that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless
communication, due to serious weaknesses in it. The ural driver relies
on the software 802.11 stack for both encryption and decryption of data
The transmit speed is user-selectable or can be adapted automatically by
the driver depending on the number of hardware transmission retries.
The ural driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
The following adapters should work:
ASUS WL-167g v1
Belkin F5D7050 v2000
Compex WLU54G 2A1100
D-Link DWL-G122 (b1)
KCORP LifeStyle KLS-685
Linksys WUSB54G v4
Linksys WUSB54GP v4
Nintendo Wi-Fi USB Connector
Nova Tech NV-902W
Surecom EP-9001-g rev 3A
The following hostname.if(5) example configures ural0 to join whatever
network is available on boot, using WEP key ``0x1deadbeef1'', channel 11,
obtaining an IP address using DHCP:
dhcp NONE NONE NONE nwkey 0x1deadbeef1 chan 11
The following hostname.if(5) example creates a host-based access point on
inet 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 NONE media autoselect \
mediaopt hostap nwid my_net chan 11
Configure ural0 to join network ``my_net'' using WPA with passphrase
# ifconfig ural0 nwid my_net wpakey my_passphrase
Join an existing BSS network, ``my_net'':
# ifconfig ural0 192.168.1.1 netmask 0xffffff00 nwid my_net
ural%d: device timeout A frame dispatched to the hardware for
transmission did not complete in time. The driver will reset the
hardware. This should not happen.
arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), usb(4), hostname.if(5),
Ralink Technology: http://www.ralinktech.com/
The ural driver first appeared in OpenBSD 3.7.
The ural driver was written by Damien Bergamini <email@example.com>.
The ural driver supports automatic control of the transmit speed in BSS
mode only. Therefore the use of an ural adapter in Host AP mode is
Host AP mode doesn't support power saving. Clients attempting to use
power saving mode may experience significant packet loss (disabling power
saving on the client will fix this).
OpenBSD 5.1 November 1, 2010 OpenBSD 5.1
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