URTWN(4)                     Device Drivers Manual                    URTWN(4)


     urtwn - Realtek RTL8188CU/RTL8188EU/RTL8192CU USB IEEE 802.11b/g/n
     wireless network device


     urtwn* at uhub? port ?


     The urtwn driver supports USB 2.0 wireless network devices based on
     Realtek RTL8188CU, RTL8188CE-VAU, RTL8188EU, RTL8188RU and RTL8192CU

     The RTL8188CU and RTL8188EU are highly integrated 802.11n adapters that
     combine a MAC, a 1T1R capable baseband and an RF in a single chip.  They
     operate in the 2GHz spectrum only.  The RTL8188RU is a high-power variant
     of the RTL8188CU.  The RTL8188CE-VAU is a PCI Express Mini Card adapter
     that attaches to the USB interface.

     The RTL8192CU is a highly integrated multiple-in, multiple-out (MIMO)
     802.11n adapter that combines a MAC, a 2T2R capable baseband and an RF in
     a single chip.  It operates in the 2GHz spectrum only.

     These are the modes the urtwn driver can operate in:

     BSS mode       Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when
                    associating with an access point, through which all
                    traffic passes.  This mode is the default.

     monitor mode   In this mode the driver is able to receive packets without
                    associating with an access point.  This disables the
                    internal receive filter and enables the card to capture
                    packets from networks which it wouldn't normally have
                    access to, or to scan for access points.

     The urtwn driver can be configured to use Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
     or Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK).  WPA is the current
     encryption standard for wireless networks.  It is strongly recommended
     that WEP not be used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless
     communication, due to serious weaknesses in it.

     The urtwn driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
     with hostname.if(5).


     The driver needs at least version 1.1p0 of the following firmware files,
     which are loaded when an interface is attached:


     A prepackaged version of the firmware can be installed using


     The following adapters should work:

           Airlink101 AWLL5088
           Alfa AWUS036NHR
           Approx APPUSB300NANO V1
           Aus. Linx AL-9604R1S
           B-Link BL-LW05-5R
           Belkin F7D1102 Surf Wireless Micro
           D-Link DWA-121
           D-Link DWA-123 rev D1
           D-Link DWA-125 rev D1
           D-Link DWA-131 rev B
           D-Link DWA-133
           D-Link DWA-135
           Digitus DN-7042
           Edimax EW-7811Un
           EDUP EP-N8508
           Elecom WDC-150SU2M
           Full River FR-W100NUL
           Hercules Wireless N USB Pico HWNUp-150
           IO-DATA WN-G150UM
           ISY IWL4000 USB Wireless Micro Adapter
           Netgear WNA1000A
           Netgear WNA1000M
           Netgear WNA1000Mv2
           On Networks N300MA
           Patriot PCUSBW1150
           Planex GW-USEco300
           Planex GW-USNano2
           Planex GW-USValue-EZ
           Planex GW-USWExtreme
           POWCHIP POW-N18
           Prolink WN2201
           Sitecom WL-365
           Sitecom WLA-2100 v2
           Solwise NET-WL-UMD-606N
           TP-LINK TL-WN722N v2
           TP-LINK TL-WN723N v3
           TP-LINK TL-WN725N v2
           TP-Link TL-WN821N v4
           TRENDnet TEW-648UBM


     The following example scans for available networks:

           # ifconfig urtwn0 scan

     The following hostname.if(5) example configures urtwn0 to join network
     "mynwid", using WPA key "mywpakey", obtaining an IP address using DHCP:

           nwid mynwid wpakey mywpakey


     urtwn0: error N, could not read firmware ...  For some reason, the driver
     was unable to read the microcode file from the filesystem.  The file
     might be missing or corrupted.

     urtwn0: device timeout  A frame dispatched to the hardware for
     transmission did not complete in time.  The driver will reset the
     hardware.  This should not happen.


     arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), usb(4), hostname.if(5),


     The urtwn driver first appeared in OpenBSD 4.9.


     The urtwn driver was written by Damien Bergamini


     The urtwn driver does not support any of the 802.11n capabilities offered
     by the adapters.  Additional work is required in ieee80211(9) before
     those features can be supported.

OpenBSD 6.4                      July 15, 2018                     OpenBSD 6.4

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