WI(4)                        Device Drivers Manual                       WI(4)


     wi - WaveLAN/IEEE, PRISM 2-3, and Spectrum24 IEEE 802.11b wireless
     network device


     # all architectures
     wi* at pci?
     wi* at pcmcia? function ?
     wi* at uhub? port ?

     # macppc extra attachment
     wi* at macobio?


     The wi driver provides support for wireless network adapters based around
     the Lucent Hermes, Intersil PRISM-2, Intersil PRISM-2.5, Intersil
     PRISM-3, and Symbol Spectrum24 chipsets.  All five chipsets provide a
     similar interface to the driver.

     The wi driver encapsulates all IP and ARP traffic as 802.11 frames,
     though it can receive either 802.11 or 802.3 frames.  Transmit speed is
     selectable between 1Mbps fixed, 2Mbps fixed, 2Mbps with auto fallback,
     5.5Mbps, 8Mbps, or 11Mbps, depending on hardware.

     These are the modes the wi driver can operate in:

     BSS mode       Also known as infrastructure mode, this is used when
                    associating with an access point, through which all
                    traffic passes.  This mode is the default.

     IBSS mode      Also known as IEEE ad-hoc mode or peer-to-peer mode.  This
                    is the standardized method of operating without an access
                    point.  Stations associate with a service set.  However,
                    actual connections between stations are peer-to-peer as in
                    ad-hoc mode.  Cards with very old firmware revisions do
                    not support this mode.

     IBSS master    Also know as Host IBSS mode.  In this mode the station
                    takes on part of the role of an access point, though
                    traffic does not pass through it to reach the other
                    stations.  When a group of stations are operating in IBSS
                    mode, one of them must be the master, specifying the
                    network name of the service set.

     Host AP        In this mode the driver acts as an access point (base
                    station) for other cards.  Only cards based on the
                    Intersil chipsets support this mode.  Furthermore, this
                    mode is not supported on USB devices.

     ad-hoc mode    More accurately known as ad-hoc demo mode.  This mode does
                    not require an access point; the adapter communicates with
                    other ad-hoc stations within range on a peer-to-peer
                    basis.  This mode is not specified by the IEEE 802.11
                    standard and there may be problems interoperating with
                    adapters manufactured by different vendors.

     The wi driver can be configured to use both software and hardware Wired
     Equivalent Privacy (WEP).  It is strongly recommended that WEP not be
     used as the sole mechanism to secure wireless communication, due to
     serious weaknesses in it.

     The Lucent WaveLAN/IEEE Silver and Gold cards as well as the Intersil and
     Symbol cards have support for WEP encryption.  The WaveLAN Gold as well
     as newer Intersil and Symbol cards support 104-bit keys, the others only
     accept 40-bit keys.  The Lucent WaveLAN/IEEE Bronze cards do not support
     WEP at all.  See also CAVEATS below.

     The wi driver can be configured at runtime with ifconfig(8) or on boot
     with hostname.if(5).


     Cards supported by the wi driver come in a variety of packages, though
     the most common are of the PCMCIA type.  In many cases, the PCI version
     of a wireless card is simply a PCMCIA card bundled with a PCI adapter.
     The PCI adapters come in two flavors: true PCMCIA bridges and dumb PCMCIA
     bridges.  A true PCMCIA bridge (such as those sold by Lucent) will attach
     as a real PCMCIA controller.  The wireless card will then attach to the
     PCMCIA bus.  Wireless cards in PCMCIA slots may be inserted and ejected
     on the fly.  A dumb bridge, on the other hand, does not show up as a true
     PCMCIA bus.  The wireless card will simply appear to the host as a normal
     PCI device and will not require any PCMCIA support.  Cards in this type
     of adapter should only be removed when the machine is powered down.

     The following cards are among those supported by the wi driver:

     Card                                  Chip         Bus
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE737A             Spectrum24   PCMCIA
     3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A             Prism-2      PCI
     Acer Warplink USB-400                 Prism-3      USB
     Actiontec HWC01170                    Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     Actiontec HWU01170                    Prism-3      USB
     Adaptec AWN-8030                      Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     Addtron AWA-100                       Prism-2      PCI
     Addtron AWP-100                       Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Agere ORiNOCO                         Hermes       PCMCIA
     AirVast WM168b                        Prism-3      USB
     AmbiCom WL1100C-CF                    Prism-3      CF
     Ambit WLAN                            Prism-3      USB
     Apacer Wireless Steno MB112           Prism-3      USB
     Apple Airport                         Hermes       macobio
     ARtem Onair                           Hermes       PCMCIA
     ASUS SpaceLink WL-100                 Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     ASUS SpaceLink WL-110                 Prism-2.5    CF
     ASUS WL-140                           Prism-3      USB
     Belkin F5D6020 (version 1 only)       Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Belkin F5D6001 (version 1 only)       Prism-2      PCI
     Belkin F5D6060 (version 1 only)       Prism-2.5    CF
     Buffalo AirStation                    Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Buffalo AirStation                    Prism-2      CF
     Cabletron RoamAbout                   Hermes       PCMCIA
     Compaq Agency NC5004                  Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Compaq W100                           Prism-3      USB
     Contec FLEXLAN/FX-DS110-PCC           Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Corega PCC-11                         Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Corega PCCA-11                        Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Corega PCCB-11                        Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Corega CGWLPCIA11                     Prism-2      PCI
     Corega WLUSB-11                       Prism-3      USB
     Corega WLUSB-11 Key                   Prism-3      USB
     D-Link DCF-660W                       Prism-2      CF
     D-Link DWL-120 (rev F)                Prism-3      USB
     D-Link DWL-122                        Prism-3      USB
     D-Link DWL-520 (rev A and B only)     Prism-2.5    PCI
     D-Link DWL-650 (rev A1-J3 only)       Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     ELSA XI300                            Prism-2      PCMCIA
     ELSA XI325                            Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     ELSA XI325H                           Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     ELSA XI800                            Prism-2      CF
     EMTAC A2424i                          Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Ericsson Wireless LAN CARD C11        Spectrum24   PCMCIA
     Gemtek WL-311                         Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     Hawking Technology WE110P             Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     I-O DATA WN-B11/PCM                   Prism-2      PCMCIA
     I-O DATA WN-B11/USB                   Prism-3      USB
     Intel PRO/Wireless 2011               Spectrum24   PCMCIA
     Intel PRO/Wireless 2011B              Prism-3      USB
     Intersil Prism II                     Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Intersil Mini PCI                     Prism-2.5    PCI
     Intersil ISL3872                      Prism-3      PCI
     Intersil Prism 2X                     Prism-3      USB
     JVC MP-XP7250                         Prism-3      USB
     Linksys WCF12                         Prism-3      CF
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11        Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 2.5    Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     Linksys Instant Wireless WPC11 3.0    Prism-3      PCMCIA
     Linksys WUSB11 v3.0                   Prism-3      USB
     Linksys WUSB12                        Prism-3      USB
     Longshine 8301                        Prism-2      PCI
     Lucent WaveLAN                        Hermes       PCMCIA
     Melco WLI-USB-KB11                    Prism-3      USB
     Melco WLI-USB-KS11G                   Prism-3      USB
     Melco WLI-USB-S11                     Prism-3      USB
     Microsoft MN510                       Prism-3      USB
     Microsoft MN520                       Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     NANOSPEED ROOT-RZ2000                 Prism-2      PCMCIA
     NDC/Sohoware NCP130                   Prism-2      PCI
     NEC CMZ-RT-WP                         Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Netgear MA111 (version 1 only)        Prism-3      USB
     Netgear MA311                         Prism-2.5    PCI
     Netgear MA401                         Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Netgear MA401RA                       Prism-2.5    PCMCIA
     Netgear MA701                         Prism-2.5    CF
     Nokia C020 Wireless LAN               Prism-I      PCMCIA
     Nokia C110/C111 Wireless LAN          Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Nortel E-mobility 211818-A            Spectrum24   PCI
     NTT-ME 11Mbps Wireless LAN            Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Pheenet WL-503IA                      Prism-3      USB
     Planex GW-NS11H                       Prism-3      PCMCIA
     Planex GW-US11H                       Prism-3      USB
     Pretec Compact WLAN OC-WLBXX-A        Prism-2.5    CF
     Proxim Harmony                        Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Proxim RangeLAN-DS                    Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Samsung MagicLAN SWL-2000N            Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Samsung MagicLAN SWL-2210P            Prism-2      PCI
     Senao NL-2511CF                       Prism-3      CF
     Senao NL-2511MP                       Prism-2.5    PCI
     Siemens SpeedStream SS1021            Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Siemens SpeedStream SS1022            Prism-3      USB
     Sitecom WL-022                        Prism-3      USB
     SMC 2632 EZ Connect                   Prism-2      PCMCIA
     Symbol Spectrum24                     Spectrum24   PCMCIA
     Symbol LA4123                         Spectrum24   PCI
     Syntax USB-400                        Prism-3      USB
     TDK LAK-CD011WL                       Prism-2      PCMCIA
     US Robotics 1120                      Prism-3      USB
     US Robotics 2410                      Prism-2      PCMCIA
     US Robotics 2445                      Prism-2      PCMCIA
     ViewSonic Airsync                     Prism-2.5    USB
     Z-Com XI-725/726                      Prism-2.5    USB
     Z-Com XI-735                          Prism-3      USB
     ZyXEL ZyAIR B-200                     Prism-3      USB

     Note that some of the PRISM-II adapters only work at 3.3V, hence
     cardbus(4) support is required for those cards to set VCC correctly, even
     though they are really 16-bit cards.

     USB support is still experimental and the device may stop functioning
     during normal use.  Resetting the device by configuring the interface
     down and back up again will normally reactivate it.

     Several vendors sell PCI adapters built around the PLX Technology 9050 or
     9052 chip.  The following such adapters are supported or expected to

           3Com AirConnect 3CRWE777A (3.3V)
           Addtron AWA-100
           Belkin F5D6000 (a rebadged WL11000P)
           Eumitcom WL11000P
           Global Sun Technology GL24110P (untested)
           Global Sun Technology GL24110P02
           Linksys WDT11 (a rebadged GL24110P02)
           Longshine 8031
           Netgear MA301
           Siemens/Efficient Networks SpeedStream 1023
           US Robotics 2415 (rebadged WL11000P)


     The following example scans for available networks:

           # ifconfig wi0 scan

     The following hostname.if(5) example configures wi0 to join network
     "mynwid", using WEP key "mywepkey", obtaining an IP address using DHCP:

           nwid mynwid
           nwkey mywepkey

     The following hostname.if(5) example creates a host-based access point on

           mediaopt hostap
           nwid mynwid
           nwkey mywepkey


     wi0: init failed  The WaveLAN card failed to come ready after an
     initialization command was issued.

     wi0: failed to allocate N bytes on NIC  The driver was unable to allocate
     memory for transmit frames in the NIC's on-board RAM.

     wi0: device timeout  The WaveLAN failed to generate an interrupt to
     acknowledge a transmit command.


     arp(4), ifmedia(4), intro(4), netintro(4), pci(4), pcmcia(4), usb(4),
     hostname.if(5), ifconfig(8)

     HCF Light programming specification.


     The wi device driver first appeared in FreeBSD 3.0.  OpenBSD support was
     added in OpenBSD 2.6.


     The wi driver was written by Bill Paul <wpaul@ctr.columbia.edu> and
     ported to OpenBSD by Niklas Hallqvist <niklas@appli.se>.


     The original Lucent WaveLAN cards usually default to channel 3; newer
     cards use channel 10 by default.  Non-Lucent cards vary, for instance the
     Addtron cards use channel 11 by default.  See ifconfig(8) for information
     on how to change the channel.

     Not all 3.3V wi PCMCIA cards work.

     IBSS creation does not currently work with Symbol cards.

     The host-based access point mode on the Intersil PRISM cards has bugs
     when used with firmware versions prior to 0.8.3 and is completely
     unusable with firmware versions prior to 0.8.0 and 1.4.0-1.4.2.

     Software WEP is currently only supported in Host AP and BSS modes.
     Furthermore, software WEP is currently incapable of decrypting fragmented
     frames.  Lucent-based cards using firmware 8.10 and above fragment
     encrypted frames sent at 11Mbps.  To work around this, Lucent clients
     with this firmware revision connecting to a Host AP server should use a
     2Mbps connection or upgrade their firmware to version 8.72.

     Host AP mode doesn't support WDS or power saving.  Clients attempting to
     use power saving mode may experience significant packet loss (disabling
     power saving on the client will fix this).

     Support for USB devices is buggy.  Host AP mode and AP scanning are not
     currently supported with USB devices.

OpenBSD 6.4                    February 14, 2014                   OpenBSD 6.4

[Unix Hosting | Open-Source | Contact Us]
[Engineering & Automation | Software Development | Server Applications]