HIER(7)                Miscellaneous Information Manual                HIER(7)


     hier - layout of filesystems


     A sketch of the filesystem hierarchy.

     /          Root directory.

     /altroot/  Alternate (backup) location for the root (`/') filesystem (see

     /bin/      User utilities fundamental to both single and multi-user
                environments.  These programs are statically compiled and
                therefore do not depend on any system libraries to run.

     /bsd       Pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded into
                memory at boot-time).

     /bsd.mp    Pure kernel executable for multiprocessor machines.

     /bsd.rd    Installation kernel.  The built-in RAM disk contains utilities
                which can be run without an external file system, so this
                kernel is useful for limited system maintenance too.

     /bsd.sp    Pure kernel executable for single processor machines.

     /dev/      Block and character device files.

                MAKEDEV  Script for creating device files (see MAKEDEV(8)).
                fd/      File descriptor files (see fd(4)).

     /emul/     Base directory for alternate areas searched first when system
                call emulation is in effect.

     /etc/      System configuration files and scripts.

                localtime       Local time zone information (see ctime(3)).
                X11/            Configuration files for the X11 window system.
                amd/            Contains map files for amd(8).
                authpf/         Configuration files for the authenticating
                                gateway user shell (see authpf(8)).
                examples/       Example configuration files for base system
                firmware/       Firmware files for various devices.
                fonts/          Configuration files for X11 window system
                hotplug/        Scripts for the hotplug daemon, hotplugd(8).
                iked/           Configuration files for iked(8).
                isakmpd/        Configuration files for isakmpd(8).
                ldap/           Certificates and schema definition files for
                mail/           System mail configuration files.
                mtree/          mtree(8) configuration files.
                npppd/          npppd(8) configuration files.
                ppp/            pppd(8) configuration files.
                raddb/servers/  List of radius servers and their associated
                                shared secrets for login_radius(8).
                rc.d/           packages(7) start/stop scripts and subroutines
                                for rc(8).
                signify/        Key files used by signify(1).
                skel/           Example `.' (dot) files for new accounts.
                skey/           One-time password user database for skey(1).
                ssh/            Configuration files for ssh(1) and sshd(8).
                ssl/            OpenSSL configuration files (see openssl(1)).
                systrace/       Sample systrace(1) policies.

     /home/     Default location for user home directories.

     /mnt/      Empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a
                temporary mount point.

     /root/     Default home directory for the superuser.

     /sbin/     System programs and administration utilities fundamental to
                both single and multi-user environments.  These programs are
                statically compiled and therefore do not depend on any system
                libraries to run.

     /tmp/      Temporary files that are not preserved between system reboots.
                Periodically cleaned by daily(8).

     /usr/      Contains the majority of user utilities and applications.

                X11R6/     Files required for the X11 window system.

                           bin/      X11 binaries.
                           include/  X11-specific C include files.
                           lib/      X11 archive libraries.

                                     X11/        Default configuration files
                                                 for X11 and companion
                                     modules/    Various libraries and drivers
                                                 for the X11 window system.
                                     pkgconfig/  Package metadata for
                                     xorg/       Data files used by the X

                           man/      X11 manual pages.
                           share/    Architecture independent data files.

                bin/       Common utilities, programming tools, and
                games/     Useful and semi-frivolous programs.
                include/   Standard C include files.

                           arpa/       C include files for Internet service
                           crypto/     C include files for the cryptographic
                           ddb/        C include files for the kernel debugger
                                       (see ddb(4)).
                           dev/        Device-specific C include files.
                           g++/        Include files for the GNU C++ compiler.
                           isofs/      C include files for the ISO standard
                                       file systems (currently only cd9660).
                           machine/    Machine specific C include files.
                           miscfs/     C include files for miscellaneous file
                           net/        Miscellaneous network C include files.
                           net80211/   C include files for 802.11 wireless
                           netinet/    C include files for Internet standard
                                       protocols (see inet(4)).
                           netinet6/   C include files for Internet protocol
                                       version 6 (see inet6(4)).
                           netmpls/    C include files for the MPLS protocol.
                           nfs/        C include files for NFS (Network File
                           objc/       C include files for GNU Objective-C.
                           openssl/    C include files for the OpenSSL library
                                       (see ssl(8)).
                           protocols/  C include files for Berkeley service
                           readline/   C include files for the readline(3)
                           rpc/        C include files for remote procedure
                                       calling (see rpc(5)).
                           rpcsvc/     C include files for rpcsvc.
                           scsi/       SCSI-specific C include files.
                           sys/        System C include files (kernel data
                           ufs/        C include files for UFS (the U-word
                                       File System).
                           uvm/        C include files for the virtual memory

                lib/       System libraries.  See intro(3) for a description
                           of library types.
                libdata/   Miscellaneous utility data files.

                           cvs/        Placeholder for user contributed cvs(1)
                           ldscripts/  ELF linker scripts.
                           perl5/      Data files for perl(1).

                libexec/   System daemons and utilities (executed by other

                           auth/         Login scripts used to authenticate
                                         users (for BSD Authentication).
                           cvs/contrib/  User contributed cvs(1) scripts.
                           lpr/          Contains the lpf filter for lpd(8).
                           smtpd/        Binaries related to smtpd(8).

                local/     Local executables, libraries, etc.
                mdec/      Boot-related executables.
                obj/       Architecture specific target tree produced by
                           building the /usr/src tree.
                ports/     The OpenBSD ports collection (see ports(7)).
                sbin/      System daemons and utilities (executed by users).
                share/     Architecture independent data files.

                           calendar/    Variety of pre-fab calendar files (see
                           dict/        Word lists (see look(1) and spell(1)).

                                        american     Spellings preferred in
                                                     American usage.
                                        british      Spellings preferred in
                                                     British usage.
                                        eign         List of common words.
                                        propernames  List of proper names.
                                        stop         Forms that would
                                                     otherwise be derivable by
                                                     spell(1) from words in
                                                     the other files in
                                                     /usr/share/dict, but
                                                     should not be accepted.
                                        web2         Words from Webster's 2nd
                                        web2a        Additional words from
                                        words        Common words.
                                        papers/      Reference databases.
                                        special/     Custom word lists.

                           doc/         Miscellaneous documentation.
                           games/       ASCII text files used by various
                           info/        Texinfo source files.
                           locale/      Locales for multi-language support.
                           man/         Manual pages.

                                        man1/   General commands (tools and
                                        man2/   System calls and error
                                        man3/   Libraries.
                                        man3p/  perl(1) programmers' reference
                                        man4/   Special files and hardware
                                        man5/   File formats.
                                        man6/   Games.
                                        man7/   Miscellaneous.
                                        man8/   System maintenance and
                                                operation commands.
                                        man9/   Kernel internals.

                           misc/        Miscellaneous system-wide ASCII text

                                        termcap      Terminal characteristics
                                                     database (see
                                        termcap.db   Hash database file
                                                     containing terminal
                                                     descriptions (see
                                        terminfo.db  Terminal information
                                        pcvtfonts/   Additional i386 console

                           mk/          Templates for make(1).
                           nls/         National Language Support (NLS)
                           snmp/        Data files for snmpd(8).

                                        mibs/  Management Information Base
                                               (MIB) definitions.

                           sysmerge/    Checksum files and reference sets for
                           tabset/      Tab description files for a variety of
                                        terminals; used in the termcap file
                                        (see termcap(5)).
                           texinfo/     Templates for texinfo(5).
                           vi/catalog/  Catalog files for the vi(1) text
                           zoneinfo/    Time zone configuration information
                                        (see tzfile(5)).

                src/       BSD and/or local source files.

                           bin/       Source for files in /bin.
                           distrib/   Source for making distribution sets.
                           etc/       Source for files in /etc.
                           games/     Source for files in /usr/games.
                           gnu/       Source for files under GPL or other
                                      restrictive licenses.
                           include/   Source for files in /usr/include.
                           lib/       Source for files in /usr/lib.
                           libexec/   Source for files in /usr/libexec.
                           regress/   Regress framework.
                           sbin/      Source for files in /sbin.
                           share/     Source for files in /usr/share.
                           sys/       Kernel source files.
                           usr.bin/   Source for files in /usr/bin.
                           usr.sbin/  Source for files in /usr/sbin.

                xenocara/  Source for the X11 window system.

                xobj/      Architecture specific target tree produced by
                           building the /usr/xenocara tree.

     /var/      Multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files.

                account/  System accounting files.

                          acct        Execution accounting file (see acct(5)).

                audit/    Audit logs.
                authpf/   PID file for authpf(8).
                backups/  Miscellaneous backup files.
                cache/    Data cached for programs.
                crash/    Crash dumps written by savecore(8).
                cron/     Spools and configuration files for cron(8) and

                          atjobs/     at(1) jobs.
                          tabs/       Individual crontab(1) files.

                db/       Miscellaneous, automatically generated system-
                          specific database files.
                empty/    Generic chroot(2) directory.
                games/    Miscellaneous game status and log files.
                log/      Miscellaneous system log files.

                          wtmp        Login/logout log (see wtmp(5)).
                          rdist/      Log files for rdist(1).

                mail/     User mailbox files.
                nsd/      Database and zone files for nsd(8).
                quotas/   Filesystem quota information files.
                run/      System information files describing various info
                          about the system since it was booted.

                          utmp        Database of current users (see utmp(5)).
                          sudo/       Timestamps for sudo(8).

                spool/    Miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling

                          ftp/         Commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root
                          lock/        Lock files for utilities such as
                          output/      Line printer spooling directories.
                          smtpd/       Mail spool for smtpd(8).
                          uucp/        uucp spool directory.
                          uucppublic/  Commonly ~uucp; public uucp temporary

                tmp -> ../tmp
                          A symbolic link to the system /tmp directory.  To
                          protect other users of /var from overfill
                          conditions, this is no longer a space you can trust
                          to retain storage over a reboot.  Periodically
                          cleaned by daily(8).
                unbound/  Configuration files for unbound(8).
                www/      Configuration files for httpd(8).
                yp/       Files for the yp(8) subsystem.


     apropos(1), find(1), locate(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), which(1)


     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

OpenBSD 5.7                    November 17, 2014                   OpenBSD 5.7

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