MTREE(8)                    System Manager's Manual                   MTREE(8)


     mtree - map a directory hierarchy


     mtree [-cdeilnqrtUux] [-f spec] [-K keywords] [-k keywords] [-p path]
           [-s seed]


     The utility mtree compares the file hierarchy rooted in the current
     directory against a specification read from the standard input.  Messages
     are written to the standard output for any files whose characteristics do
     not match the specification, or which are missing from either the file
     hierarchy or the specification.  For an explanation of the directory
     hierarchy, see hier(7).

     The options are as follows:

     -c      Print a specification for the file hierarchy to the standard

     -d      Ignore everything except directory type files.

     -e      Don't complain about files that are in the file hierarchy, but
             not in the specification.

     -f spec
             Read the specification from file spec, instead of from the
             standard input.

     -i      Indents the output 4 spaces each time a directory level is
             descended when creating a specification with the -c option.  This
             does not affect either the /set statements or the comment before
             each directory.  It does however affect the comment before the
             close of each directory.

     -K keywords
             Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated) keywords to the
             current set of keywords.

     -k keywords
             Use the "type" keyword plus the specified (whitespace or comma
             separated) keywords instead of the current set of keywords.

     -l      Do "loose" permissions checks, in which more stringent
             permissions will match less stringent ones.  For example, a file
             marked mode 0444 will pass a check for mode 0644.  "Loose" checks
             apply only to read, write and execute permissions -- in
             particular, if other bits like the sticky bit or suid/sgid bits
             are set either in the specification or the file, exact checking
             will be performed.  This flag may not be set at the same time as
             the -u or -U flags.

     -n      Do not emit pathname comments when creating a specification.
             Normally a comment is emitted before each directory and before
             the close of that directory when using the -c option.

     -p path
             Use the file hierarchy rooted in path, instead of the current

     -q      Quiet mode.  Do not complain when a "missing" directory cannot be
             created because it already exists.  This occurs when the
             directory is a symbolic link.

     -r      Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not described in
             the specification.

     -s seed
             Display a single checksum to the standard error output that
             represents all of the files for which the keyword cksum was
             specified.  The checksum is seeded with the specified value.

     -t      If a file's timestamp is different from the specification,
             "touch" it to match the specification (and list as modified).

     -U      Modify the owner, group, and permissions of existing files to
             match the specification and create any missing directories.
             User, group, and permissions must all be specified for missing
             directories to be created.  Exit with a status of 0 on success, 1
             if any error occurred; a mismatch is not considered an error if
             it was corrected.

     -u      Same as the -U option except a status of 2 is returned if the
             file hierarchy did not match the specification.

     -x      Don't descend below mount points in the file hierarchy.

     Specifications are mostly composed of "keywords" (i.e., strings that
     specify values relating to files).  No keywords have default values, and
     if a keyword has no value set, no checks based on it are performed.

     Currently supported keywords are as follows:

     cksum         The checksum of the file using the default algorithm
                   specified by the cksum(1) utility.

     flags         The current file's flags (whitespace or comma separated) in
                   symbolic form as specified by chflags(1).  The string
                   "none" may be used to indicate that no flags should be set
                   on the file.

     gid           The file group as a numeric value.

     gname         The file group as a symbolic name.

     ignore        Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.

     link          The file the symbolic link is expected to reference.

     md5digest     The MD5 message digest of the file.

     mode          The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or
                   symbolic value.

     nlink         The number of hard links the file is expected to have.

     nochange      Do not change the attributes (owner, group, mode, etc) on a
                   file or directory.

     optional      The file is optional; don't complain about the file if it's
                   not in the file hierarchy.

     rmd160digest  The RIPEMD-160 message digest of the file.

     sha1digest    The SHA-1 message digest of the file.

     sha256digest  The SHA-256 message digest of the file.

     size          The size, in bytes, of the file.

     time          The last modification time of the file.

     type          The type of the file; may be set to any one of the

                   block       block special device
                   char        character special device
                   dir         directory
                   fifo        FIFO
                   file        regular file
                   link        symbolic link
                   socket      socket

     uid           The file owner as a numeric value.

     uname         The file owner as a symbolic name.

     The default set of keywords are gid, mode, nlink, size, link, time, and

     There are four types of lines in a specification.

     The first type of line sets a global value for a keyword, and consists of
     the string "/set" followed by whitespace, followed by sets of
     keyword/value pairs, separated by whitespace.  Keyword/value pairs
     consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign (`='), followed by a
     value, without whitespace characters.  Once a keyword has been set, its
     value remains unchanged until either reset or unset.

     The second type of line unsets keywords and consists of the string
     "/unset", followed by whitespace, followed by one or more keywords,
     separated by whitespace.

     The third type of line is a file specification and consists of a file
     name, followed by whitespace, followed by zero or more whitespace
     separated keyword/value pairs.  The file name may be preceded by
     whitespace characters.  The file name may contain any of the standard
     file name matching characters ("[", "]", "?", or "*"), in which case
     files in the hierarchy will be associated with the first pattern that
     they match.

     Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an
     equals sign, followed by the keyword's value, without whitespace
     characters.  These values override, without changing, the global value of
     the corresponding keyword.

     All paths are relative.  Specifying a directory will cause subsequent
     files to be searched for in that directory hierarchy.  Which brings us to
     the last type of line in a specification: a line containing only the
     string ".." causes the current directory path to ascend one level.

     Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash mark
     (`#') are ignored.


     /etc/mtree  system specification directory


     The mtree utility exits with a status of 0 on success, 1 if any error
     occurred, and 2 if the file hierarchy did not match the specification.  A
     status of 2 is converted to a status of 0 if the -U option is used.


     To detect system binaries that have been "trojan horsed", it is
     recommended that mtree -cK sha256digest be run on the file systems, and a
     copy of the results stored on a different machine or, at least, in
     encrypted form.  The output file itself should be digested using the
     sha256(1) utility.  Then, periodically, mtree and sha256(1) should be run
     against the on-line specifications.  While it is possible for the bad
     guys to change the on-line specifications to conform to their modified
     binaries, it is believed to be impractical for them to create a modified
     specification which has the same SHA-256 digest as the original.

     The -d and -u options can be used in combination to create directory
     hierarchies for distributions and other such things; the files in
     /etc/mtree were used to create almost all directories in a normal binary


     chgrp(1), chmod(1), cksum(1), md5(1), stat(2), fts(3), md5(3), rmd160(3),
     sha1(3), sha2(3), hier(7), chown(8)


     The mtree utility appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno.

OpenBSD 6.2                     March 13, 2015                     OpenBSD 6.2

[Unix Hosting | Open-Source | Contact Us]
[Engineering & Automation | Software Development | Server Applications]