openssl



OPENSSL(1)                  General Commands Manual                 OPENSSL(1)


NAME

     openssl - OpenSSL command line tool


SYNOPSIS

     openssl command [command_opts] [command_args]

     openssl list-standard-commands | list-message-digest-commands |
             list-cipher-commands | list-cipher-algorithms |
             list-message-digest-algorithms | list-public-key-algorithms

     openssl no-command


DESCRIPTION

     OpenSSL is a cryptography toolkit implementing the Transport Layer
     Security (TLS v1) network protocol, as well as related cryptography
     standards.

     The openssl program is a command line tool for using the various
     cryptography functions of openssl's crypto library from the shell.

     The pseudo-commands list-standard-commands, list-message-digest-commands,
     and list-cipher-commands output a list (one entry per line) of the names
     of all standard commands, message digest commands, or cipher commands,
     respectively, that are available in the present openssl utility.

     The pseudo-commands list-cipher-algorithms and
     list-message-digest-algorithms list all cipher and message digest names,
     one entry per line.  Aliases are listed as:

           from => to

     The pseudo-command list-public-key-algorithms lists all supported public
     key algorithms.

     The pseudo-command no-command tests whether a command of the specified
     name is available.  If command does not exist, it returns 0 and prints
     no-command; otherwise it returns 1 and prints command.  In both cases,
     the output goes to stdout and nothing is printed to stderr.  Additional
     command line arguments are always ignored.  Since for each cipher there
     is a command of the same name, this provides an easy way for shell
     scripts to test for the availability of ciphers in the openssl program.

     Note: no-command is not able to detect pseudo-commands such as quit,
     list-...-commands, or no-command itself.


ASN1PARSE

     openssl asn1parse [-i] [-dlimit number] [-dump] [-genconf file]
                       [-genstr str] [-in file] [-inform der | pem | txt]
                       [-length number] [-noout] [-offset number] [-oid file]
                       [-out file] [-strparse offset]

     The asn1parse command is a diagnostic utility that can parse ASN.1
     structures.  It can also be used to extract data from ASN.1 formatted
     data.

     The options are as follows:

     -dlimit number
             Dump the first number bytes of unknown data in hex form.

     -dump   Dump unknown data in hex form.

     -genconf file, -genstr str
             Generate encoded data based on string str, file file, or both,
             using the format described in ASN1_generate_nconf(3).  If only
             file is present then the string is obtained from the default
             section using the name "asn1".  The encoded data is passed
             through the ASN.1 parser and printed out as though it came from a
             file; the contents can thus be examined and written to a file
             using the -out option.

     -i      Indent the output according to the "depth" of the structures.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -inform der | pem | txt
             The input format.

     -length number
             Number of bytes to parse; the default is until end of file.

     -noout  Do not output the parsed version of the input file.

     -offset number
             Starting offset to begin parsing; the default is start of file.

     -oid file
             A file containing additional object identifiers (OIDs).  If an
             OID (object identifier) is not part of openssl's internal table
             it will be represented in numerical form (for example 1.2.3.4).

             Each line consists of three columns: the first column is the OID
             in numerical format and should be followed by whitespace.  The
             second column is the "short name", which is a single word
             followed by whitespace.  The final column is the rest of the line
             and is the "long name".  asn1parse displays the long name.

     -out file
             The DER-encoded output file; the default is no encoded output
             (useful when combined with -strparse).

     -strparse offset
             Parse the content octets of the ASN.1 object starting at offset.
             This option can be used multiple times to "drill down" into a
             nested structure.


CA

     openssl ca [-batch] [-cert file] [-config file] [-crl_CA_compromise time]
                [-crl_compromise time] [-crl_hold instruction]
                [-crl_reason reason] [-crldays days] [-crlexts section]
                [-crlhours hours] [-days arg] [-enddate date]
                [-extensions section] [-extfile section] [-gencrl] [-in file]
                [-infiles] [-key keyfile] [-keyfile arg] [-keyform pem]
                [-md arg] [-msie_hack] [-name section] [-noemailDN] [-notext]
                [-out file] [-outdir dir] [-passin arg] [-policy arg]
                [-preserveDN] [-revoke file] [-spkac file] [-ss_cert file]
                [-startdate date] [-status serial] [-subj arg] [-updatedb]
                [-verbose]

     The ca command is a minimal certificate authority (CA) application.  It
     can be used to sign certificate requests in a variety of forms and
     generate certificate revocation lists (CRLs).  It also maintains a text
     database of issued certificates and their status.

     The options relevant to CAs are as follows:

     -batch
           Batch mode.  In this mode no questions will be asked and all
           certificates will be certified automatically.

     -cert file
           The CA certificate file.

     -config file
           Specify an alternative configuration file.

     -days arg
           The number of days to certify the certificate for.

     -enddate date
           Set the expiry date.  The format of the date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the
           same as an ASN.1 UTCTime structure).

     -extensions section
           The section of the configuration file containing certificate
           extensions to be added when a certificate is issued (defaults to
           x509_extensions unless the -extfile option is used).  If no
           extension section is present, a V1 certificate is created.  If the
           extension section is present (even if it is empty), then a V3
           certificate is created.

     -extfile file
           An additional configuration file to read certificate extensions
           from (using the default section unless the -extensions option is
           also used).

     -in file
           An input file containing a single certificate request to be signed
           by the CA.

     -infiles
           If present, this should be the last option; all subsequent
           arguments are assumed to be the names of files containing
           certificate requests.

     -key keyfile
           The password used to encrypt the private key.  Since on some
           systems the command line arguments are visible, this option should
           be used with caution.

     -keyfile file
           The private key to sign requests with.

     -keyform pem
           Private key file format.

     -md alg
           The message digest to use.  Possible values include md5 and sha1.
           This option also applies to CRLs.

     -msie_hack
           This is a legacy option to make ca work with very old versions of
           the IE certificate enrollment control "certenr3".  It used
           UniversalStrings for almost everything.  Since the old control has
           various security bugs, its use is strongly discouraged.  The newer
           control "Xenroll" does not need this option.

     -name section
           Specifies the configuration file section to use (overrides
           default_ca in the ca section).

     -noemailDN
           The DN of a certificate can contain the EMAIL field if present in
           the request DN, however it is good policy just having the email set
           into the altName extension of the certificate.  When this option is
           set, the EMAIL field is removed from the certificate's subject and
           set only in the, eventually present, extensions.  The email_in_dn
           keyword can be used in the configuration file to enable this
           behaviour.

     -notext
           Don't output the text form of a certificate to the output file.

     -out file
           The output file to output certificates to.  The default is standard
           output.  The certificate details will also be printed out to this
           file.

     -outdir directory
           The directory to output certificates to.  The certificate will be
           written to a file consisting of the serial number in hex with
           ".pem" appended.

     -passin arg
           The key password source.

     -policy arg
           Define the CA "policy" to use.  The policy section in the
           configuration file consists of a set of variables corresponding to
           certificate DN fields.  The values may be one of "match" (the value
           must match the same field in the CA certificate), "supplied" (the
           value must be present), or "optional" (the value may be present).
           Any fields not mentioned in the policy section are silently
           deleted, unless the -preserveDN option is set, but this can be
           regarded more of a quirk than intended behaviour.

     -preserveDN
           Normally, the DN order of a certificate is the same as the order of
           the fields in the relevant policy section.  When this option is
           set, the order is the same as the request.  This is largely for
           compatibility with the older IE enrollment control which would only
           accept certificates if their DNs matched the order of the request.
           This is not needed for Xenroll.

     -spkac file
           A file containing a single Netscape signed public key and
           challenge, and additional field values to be signed by the CA.
           This will usually come from the KEYGEN tag in an HTML form to
           create a new private key.  It is, however, possible to create
           SPKACs using the spkac utility.

           The file should contain the variable SPKAC set to the value of the
           SPKAC and also the required DN components as name value pairs.  If
           it's necessary to include the same component twice, then it can be
           preceded by a number and a `.'.

     -ss_cert file
           A single self-signed certificate to be signed by the CA.

     -startdate date
           Set the start date.  The format of the date is YYMMDDHHMMSSZ (the
           same as an ASN.1 UTCTime structure).

     -status serial
           Show the status of the certificate with serial number serial.

     -updatedb
           Update database for expired certificates.

     -verbose
           Print extra details about the operations being performed.

     The options relevant to CRLs are as follows:

     -crl_CA_compromise time
           This is the same as -crl_compromise, except the revocation reason
           is set to CACompromise.

     -crl_compromise time
           Set the revocation reason to keyCompromise and the compromise time
           to time.  time should be in GeneralizedTime format, i.e.
           YYYYMMDDHHMMSSZ.

     -crl_hold instruction
           Set the CRL revocation reason code to certificateHold and the hold
           instruction to instruction which must be an OID.  Although any OID
           can be used, only holdInstructionNone (the use of which is
           discouraged by RFC 2459), holdInstructionCallIssuer or
           holdInstructionReject will normally be used.

     -crl_reason reason
           Revocation reason, where reason is one of: unspecified,
           keyCompromise, CACompromise, affiliationChanged, superseded,
           cessationOfOperation, certificateHold or removeFromCRL.  The
           matching of reason is case insensitive.  Setting any revocation
           reason will make the CRL v2.  In practice, removeFromCRL is not
           particularly useful because it is only used in delta CRLs which are
           not currently implemented.

     -crldays num
           The number of days before the next CRL is due.  This is the days
           from now to place in the CRL nextUpdate field.

     -crlexts section
           The section of the configuration file containing CRL extensions to
           include.  If no CRL extension section is present then a V1 CRL is
           created; if the CRL extension section is present (even if it is
           empty) then a V2 CRL is created.  The CRL extensions specified are
           CRL extensions and not CRL entry extensions.  It should be noted
           that some software can't handle V2 CRLs.

     -crlhours num
           The number of hours before the next CRL is due.

     -gencrl
           Generate a CRL based on information in the index file.

     -revoke file
           A file containing a certificate to revoke.

     -subj arg
           Supersedes the subject name given in the request.  The arg must be
           formatted as /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=...; characters may
           be escaped by `\' (backslash), no spaces are skipped.

     Many of the options can be set in the ca section of the configuration
     file (or in the default section of the configuration file), specified
     using default_ca or -name.  The options preserve and msie_hack are read
     directly from the ca section.

     Many of the configuration file options are identical to command line
     options.  Where the option is present in the configuration file and the
     command line, the command line value is used.  Where an option is
     described as mandatory, then it must be present in the configuration file
     or the command line equivalent (if any) used.

     certificate
           The same as -cert.  It gives the file containing the CA
           certificate.  Mandatory.

     copy_extensions
           Determines how extensions in certificate requests should be
           handled.  If set to none or this option is not present, then
           extensions are ignored and not copied to the certificate.  If set
           to copy, then any extensions present in the request that are not
           already present are copied to the certificate.  If set to copyall,
           then all extensions in the request are copied to the certificate:
           if the extension is already present in the certificate it is
           deleted first.

           The copy_extensions option should be used with caution.  If care is
           not taken, it can be a security risk.  For example, if a
           certificate request contains a basicConstraints extension with
           CA:TRUE and the copy_extensions value is set to copyall and the
           user does not spot this when the certificate is displayed, then
           this will hand the requestor a valid CA certificate.

           This situation can be avoided by setting copy_extensions to copy
           and including basicConstraints with CA:FALSE in the configuration
           file.  Then if the request contains a basicConstraints extension,
           it will be ignored.

           The main use of this option is to allow a certificate request to
           supply values for certain extensions such as subjectAltName.

     crl_extensions
           The same as -crlexts.

     crlnumber
           A text file containing the next CRL number to use in hex.  The CRL
           number will be inserted in the CRLs only if this file exists.  If
           this file is present, it must contain a valid CRL number.

     database
           The text database file to use.  Mandatory.  This file must be
           present, though initially it will be empty.

     default_crl_hours, default_crl_days
           The same as the -crlhours and -crldays options.  These will only be
           used if neither command line option is present.  At least one of
           these must be present to generate a CRL.

     default_days
           The same as the -days option.  The number of days to certify a
           certificate for.

     default_enddate
           The same as the -enddate option.  Either this option or
           default_days (or the command line equivalents) must be present.

     default_md
           The same as the -md option.  The message digest to use.  Mandatory.

     default_startdate
           The same as the -startdate option.  The start date to certify a
           certificate for.  If not set, the current time is used.

     email_in_dn
           The same as -noemailDN.  If the EMAIL field is to be removed from
           the DN of the certificate, simply set this to "no".  If not
           present, the default is to allow for the EMAIL field in the
           certificate's DN.

     msie_hack
           The same as -msie_hack.

     name_opt, cert_opt
           These options allow the format used to display the certificate
           details when asking the user to confirm signing.  All the options
           supported by the x509 utilities' -nameopt and -certopt switches can
           be used here, except that no_signame and no_sigdump are permanently
           set and cannot be disabled (this is because the certificate
           signature cannot be displayed because the certificate has not been
           signed at this point).

           For convenience, the value ca_default is accepted by both to
           produce a reasonable output.

           If neither option is present, the format used in earlier versions
           of openssl is used.  Use of the old format is strongly discouraged
           because it only displays fields mentioned in the policy section,
           mishandles multicharacter string types and does not display
           extensions.

     new_certs_dir
           The same as the -outdir command line option.  It specifies the
           directory where new certificates will be placed.  Mandatory.

     oid_file
           This specifies a file containing additional object identifiers.
           Each line of the file should consist of the numerical form of the
           object identifier followed by whitespace, then the short name
           followed by whitespace and finally the long name.

     oid_section
           This specifies a section in the configuration file containing extra
           object identifiers.  Each line should consist of the short name of
           the object identifier followed by `=' and the numerical form.  The
           short and long names are the same when this option is used.

     policy
           The same as -policy.  Mandatory.

     preserve
           The same as -preserveDN.

     private_key
           Same as the -keyfile option.  The file containing the CA private
           key.  Mandatory.

     serial
           A text file containing the next serial number to use in hex.
           Mandatory.  This file must be present and contain a valid serial
           number.

     unique_subject
           If the value yes is given, the valid certificate entries in the
           database must have unique subjects.  If the value no is given,
           several valid certificate entries may have the exact same subject.
           The default value is yes.

     x509_extensions
           The same as -extensions.


CIPHERS

     openssl ciphers [-hVv] [-tls1] [cipherlist]

     The ciphers command converts openssl cipher lists into ordered SSL cipher
     preference lists.  It can be used as a way to determine the appropriate
     cipher list.

     The options are as follows:

     -h, -?  Print a brief usage message.

     -tls1   Only include TLS v1 ciphers.

     -V      Verbose.  List ciphers with a complete description of protocol
             version, key exchange, authentication, encryption and mac
             algorithms, any key size restrictions, and cipher suite codes
             (hex format).

     -v      Like -V, but without cipher suite codes.

     cipherlist
             A cipher list to convert to a cipher preference list.  If it is
             not included, the default cipher list will be used.

             The cipher list consists of one or more cipher strings separated
             by colons.  Commas or spaces are also acceptable separators, but
             colons are normally used.

             The actual cipher string can take several different forms:

             It can consist of a single cipher suite, such as RC4-SHA.

             It can represent a list of cipher suites containing a certain
             algorithm, or cipher suites of a certain type.  For example SHA1
             represents all cipher suites using the digest algorithm SHA1.

             Lists of cipher suites can be combined in a single cipher string
             using the `+' character (logical AND operation).  For example,
             SHA1+DES represents all cipher suites containing the SHA1 and DES
             algorithms.

             Each cipher string can be optionally preceded by the characters
             `!', `-', or `+'.  If `!' is used, then the ciphers are
             permanently deleted from the list.  The ciphers deleted can never
             reappear in the list even if they are explicitly stated.  If `-'
             is used, then the ciphers are deleted from the list, but some or
             all of the ciphers can be added again by later options.  If `+'
             is used, then the ciphers are moved to the end of the list.  This
             option doesn't add any new ciphers, it just moves matching
             existing ones.

             If none of these characters is present, the string is just
             interpreted as a list of ciphers to be appended to the current
             preference list.  If the list includes any ciphers already
             present, they will be ignored; that is, they will not be moved to
             the end of the list.

             Additionally, the cipher string @STRENGTH can be used at any
             point to sort the current cipher list in order of encryption
             algorithm key length.

     The following is a list of all permitted cipher strings and their
     meanings.

     DEFAULT
           The default cipher list.  This is determined at compile time and is
           currently ALL:!aNULL:!eNULL:!SSLv2.  This must be the first cipher
           string specified.

     COMPLEMENTOFDEFAULT
           The ciphers included in ALL, but not enabled by default.  Currently
           this is ADH.  Note that this rule does not cover eNULL, which is
           not included by ALL (use COMPLEMENTOFALL if necessary).

     ALL   All cipher suites except the eNULL ciphers, which must be
           explicitly enabled.

     COMPLEMENTOFALL
           The cipher suites not enabled by ALL, currently being eNULL.

     HIGH  "High" encryption cipher suites.  This currently means those with
           key lengths larger than 128 bits.

     MEDIUM
           "Medium" encryption cipher suites, currently those using 128-bit
           encryption.

     LOW   "Low" encryption cipher suites, currently those using 64- or 56-bit
           encryption algorithms.

     eNULL, NULL
           The "NULL" ciphers; that is, those offering no encryption.  Because
           these offer no encryption at all and are a security risk, they are
           disabled unless explicitly included.

     aNULL
           The cipher suites offering no authentication.  This is currently
           the anonymous DH algorithms.  These cipher suites are vulnerable to
           a "man in the middle" attack, so their use is normally discouraged.

     kRSA, RSA
           Cipher suites using RSA key exchange.

     kEDH  Cipher suites using ephemeral DH key agreement.

     aRSA  Cipher suites using RSA authentication, i.e. the certificates carry
           RSA keys.

     aDSS, DSS
           Cipher suites using DSS authentication, i.e. the certificates carry
           DSS keys.

     TLSv1
           TLS v1.0 cipher suites.

     DH    Cipher suites using DH, including anonymous DH.

     ADH   Anonymous DH cipher suites.

     AES   Cipher suites using AES.

     3DES  Cipher suites using triple DES.

     DES   Cipher suites using DES (not triple DES).

     RC4   Cipher suites using RC4.

     CAMELLIA
           Cipher suites using Camellia.

     CHACHA20
           Cipher suites using ChaCha20.

     IDEA  Cipher suites using IDEA.

     MD5   Cipher suites using MD5.

     SHA1, SHA
           Cipher suites using SHA1.


CRL

     openssl crl [-CAfile file] [-CApath dir] [-fingerprint] [-hash]
                 [-in file] [-inform der | pem] [-issuer] [-lastupdate]
                 [-nextupdate] [-noout] [-out file] [-outform der | pem]
                 [-text]

     The crl command processes CRL files in DER or PEM format.

     The options are as follows:

     -CAfile file
             Verify the signature on a CRL by looking up the issuing
             certificate in file.

     -CApath directory
             Verify the signature on a CRL by looking up the issuing
             certificate in dir.  This directory must be a standard
             certificate directory, i.e. a hash of each subject name (using
             x509 -hash) should be linked to each certificate.

     -fingerprint
             Print the CRL fingerprint.

     -hash   Output a hash of the issuer name.  This can be used to look up
             CRLs in a directory by issuer name.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -issuer
             Output the issuer name.

     -lastupdate
             Output the lastUpdate field.

     -nextupdate
             Output the nextUpdate field.

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the CRL.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -text   Print the CRL in plain text.


CRL2PKCS7

     openssl crl2pkcs7 [-certfile file] [-in file] [-inform der | pem]
                       [-nocrl] [-out file] [-outform der | pem]

     The crl2pkcs7 command takes an optional CRL and one or more certificates
     and converts them into a PKCS#7 degenerate "certificates only" structure.

     The options are as follows:

     -certfile file
             Add the certificates in PEM file to the PKCS#7 structure.  This
             option can be used more than once to read certificates from
             multiple files.

     -in file
             Read the CRL from file, or standard input if not specified.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -nocrl  Normally, a CRL is included in the output file.  With this
             option, no CRL is included in the output file and a CRL is not
             read from the input file.

     -out file
             Write the PKCS#7 structure to file, or standard output if not
             specified.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.


DGST

     openssl dgst [-cd] [-binary] [-digest] [-hex] [-hmac key] [-keyform pem]
                  [-mac algorithm] [-macopt nm:v] [-out file] [-passin arg]
                  [-prverify file] [-sign file] [-signature file]
                  [-sigopt nm:v] [-verify file] [file ...]

     The digest functions output the message digest of a supplied file or
     files in hexadecimal form.  They can also be used for digital signing and
     verification.

     The options are as follows:

     -binary
             Output the digest or signature in binary form.

     -c      Print the digest in two-digit groups separated by colons.

     -d      Print BIO debugging information.

     -digest
             Use the specified message digest.  The default is MD5.  The
             available digests can be displayed using openssl
             list-message-digest-commands.  The following are equivalent:
             openssl dgst -md5 and openssl md5.

     -hex    Digest is to be output as a hex dump.  This is the default case
             for a "normal" digest as opposed to a digital signature.

     -hmac key
             Create a hashed MAC using key.

     -keyform pem
             Specifies the key format to sign the digest with.

     -mac algorithm
             Create a keyed Message Authentication Code (MAC).  The most
             popular MAC algorithm is HMAC (hash-based MAC), but there are
             other MAC algorithms which are not based on hash.  MAC keys and
             other options should be set via the -macopt parameter.

     -macopt nm:v
             Passes options to the MAC algorithm, specified by -mac.  The
             following options are supported by HMAC:

             key:string
                     Specifies the MAC key as an alphanumeric string (use if
                     the key contain printable characters only).  String
                     length must conform to any restrictions of the MAC
                     algorithm.

             hexkey:string
                     Specifies the MAC key in hexadecimal form (two hex digits
                     per byte).  Key length must conform to any restrictions
                     of the MAC algorithm.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -passin arg
             The key password source.

     -prverify file
             Verify the signature using the private key in file.  The output
             is either "Verification OK" or "Verification Failure".

     -sign file
             Digitally sign the digest using the private key in file.

     -signature file
             The actual signature to verify.

     -sigopt nm:v
             Pass options to the signature algorithm during sign or verify
             operations.  The names and values of these options are algorithm-
             specific.

     -verify file
             Verify the signature using the public key in file.  The output is
             either "Verification OK" or "Verification Failure".

     file ...
             File or files to digest.  If no files are specified then standard
             input is used.


DHPARAM

     openssl dhparam [-2 | -5] [-C] [-check] [-dsaparam] [-in file]
                     [-inform der | pem] [-noout] [-out file]
                     [-outform der | pem] [-text] [numbits]

     The dhparam command is used to manipulate DH parameter files.  Only the
     older PKCS#3 DH is supported, not the newer X9.42 DH.

     The options are as follows:

     -2, -5  The generator to use; 2 is the default.  If present, the input
             file is ignored and parameters are generated instead.

     -C      Convert the parameters into C code.  The parameters can then be
             loaded by calling the get_dhnumbits function.

     -check  Check the DH parameters.

     -dsaparam
             Read or create DSA parameters, converted to DH format on output.
             Otherwise, "strong" primes (such that (p-1)/2 is also prime) will
             be used for DH parameter generation.

             DH parameter generation with the -dsaparam option is much faster,
             and the recommended exponent length is shorter, which makes DH
             key exchange more efficient.  Beware that with such DSA-style DH
             parameters, a fresh DH key should be created for each use to
             avoid small-subgroup attacks that may be possible otherwise.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the parameters.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -text   Print the DH parameters in plain text.

     numbits
             Generate a parameter set of size numbits.  It must be the last
             option.  If not present, a value of 2048 is used.  If this value
             is present, the input file is ignored and parameters are
             generated instead.


DSA

     openssl dsa [-aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3] [-in file]
                 [-inform der | pem] [-modulus] [-noout] [-out file]
                 [-outform der | pem] [-passin arg] [-passout arg] [-pubin]
                 [-pubout] [-text]

     The dsa command processes DSA keys.  They can be converted between
     various forms and their components printed out.

     Note: This command uses the traditional SSLeay compatible format for
     private key encryption: newer applications should use the more secure
     PKCS#8 format using the pkcs8 command.

     The options are as follows:

     -aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3
             Encrypt the private key with the AES, DES, or the triple DES
             ciphers, respectively, before outputting it.  A pass phrase is
             prompted for.  If none of these options are specified, the key is
             written in plain text.  This means that using the dsa utility to
             read an encrypted key with no encryption option can be used to
             remove the pass phrase from a key, or by setting the encryption
             options it can be used to add or change the pass phrase.  These
             options can only be used with PEM format output files.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.
             If the key is encrypted, a pass phrase will be prompted for.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -modulus
             Print the value of the public key component of the key.

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the key.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.
             If any encryption options are set then a pass phrase will be
             prompted for.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -passin arg
             The key password source.

     -passout arg
             The output file password source.

     -pubin  Read in a public key, not a private key.

     -pubout
             Output a public key, not a private key.  Automatically set if the
             input is a public key.

     -text   Print the public/private key in plain text.


DSAPARAM

     openssl dsaparam [-C] [-genkey] [-in file] [-inform der | pem] [-noout]
                      [-out file] [-outform der | pem] [-text] [numbits]

     The dsaparam command is used to manipulate or generate DSA parameter
     files.

     The options are as follows:

     -C      Convert the parameters into C code.  The parameters can then be
             loaded by calling the get_dsaXXX function.

     -genkey
             Generate a DSA key either using the specified or generated
             parameters.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.
             If the numbits parameter is included, then this option is
             ignored.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the parameters.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -text   Print the DSA parameters in plain text.

     numbits
             Generate a parameter set of size numbits.  If this option is
             included, the input file is ignored.


EC

     openssl ec [-conv_form arg] [-des] [-des3] [-in file] [-inform der | pem]
                [-noout] [-out file] [-outform der | pem] [-param_enc arg]
                [-param_out] [-passin arg] [-passout arg] [-pubin] [-pubout]
                [-text]

     The ec command processes EC keys.  They can be converted between various
     forms and their components printed out.  openssl uses the private key
     format specified in "SEC 1: Elliptic Curve Cryptography"
     (http://www.secg.org/).  To convert an EC private key into the PKCS#8
     private key format use the pkcs8 command.

     The options are as follows:

     -conv_form arg
             Specify how the points on the elliptic curve are converted into
             octet strings.  Possible values are: compressed (the default),
             uncompressed, and hybrid.  For more information regarding the
             point conversion forms see the X9.62 standard.  Note: Due to
             patent issues the compressed option is disabled by default for
             binary curves and can be enabled by defining the preprocessor
             macro OPENSSL_EC_BIN_PT_COMP at compile time.

     -des | -des3
             Encrypt the private key with DES, triple DES, or any other cipher
             supported by openssl.  A pass phrase is prompted for.  If none of
             these options is specified the key is written in plain text.
             This means that using the ec utility to read in an encrypted key
             with no encryption option can be used to remove the pass phrase
             from a key, or by setting the encryption options it can be used
             to add or change the pass phrase.  These options can only be used
             with PEM format output files.

     -in file
             The input file to read a key from, or standard input if not
             specified.  If the key is encrypted a pass phrase will be
             prompted for.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the key.

     -out file
             The output filename to write to, or standard output if not
             specified.  If any encryption options are set then a pass phrase
             will be prompted for.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -param_enc arg
             Specify how the elliptic curve parameters are encoded.  Possible
             value are: named_curve, i.e. the EC parameters are specified by
             an OID; or explicit, where the EC parameters are explicitly given
             (see RFC 3279 for the definition of the EC parameter structures).
             The default value is named_curve.  Note: the implicitlyCA
             alternative, as specified in RFC 3279, is currently not
             implemented.

     -passin arg
             The key password source.

     -passout arg
             The output file password source.

     -pubin  Read in a public key, not a private key.

     -pubout
             Output a public key, not a private key.  Automatically set if the
             input is a public key.

     -text   Print the public/private key in plain text.


ECPARAM

     openssl ecparam [-C] [-check] [-conv_form arg] [-genkey] [-in file]
                     [-inform der | pem] [-list_curves] [-name arg] [-no_seed]
                     [-noout] [-out file] [-outform der | pem]
                     [-param_enc arg] [-text]

     The ecparam command is used to manipulate or generate EC parameter files.
     openssl is not able to generate new groups so ecparam can only create EC
     parameters from known (named) curves.

     The options are as follows:

     -C      Convert the EC parameters into C code.  The parameters can then
             be loaded by calling the get_ec_group_XXX function.

     -check  Validate the elliptic curve parameters.

     -conv_form arg
             Specify how the points on the elliptic curve are converted into
             octet strings.  Possible values are: compressed (the default),
             uncompressed, and hybrid.  For more information regarding the
             point conversion forms see the X9.62 standard.  Note: Due to
             patent issues the compressed option is disabled by default for
             binary curves and can be enabled by defining the preprocessor
             macro OPENSSL_EC_BIN_PT_COMP at compile time.

     -genkey
             Generate an EC private key using the specified parameters.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -list_curves
             Print a list of all currently implemented EC parameter names and
             exit.

     -name arg
             Use the EC parameters with the specified "short" name.

     -no_seed
             Do not include the seed for the parameter generation in the
             ECParameters structure (see RFC 3279).

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the parameters.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -param_enc arg
             Specify how the elliptic curve parameters are encoded.  Possible
             value are: named_curve, i.e. the EC parameters are specified by
             an OID, or explicit, where the EC parameters are explicitly given
             (see RFC 3279 for the definition of the EC parameter structures).
             The default value is named_curve.  Note: the implicitlyCA
             alternative, as specified in RFC 3279, is currently not
             implemented.

     -text   Print the EC parameters in plain text.


ENC

     openssl enc -ciphername [-AadePp] [-base64] [-bufsize number] [-debug]
                 [-in file] [-iv IV] [-K key] [-k password] [-kfile file]
                 [-md digest] [-none] [-nopad] [-nosalt] [-out file]
                 [-pass arg] [-S salt] [-salt]

     The symmetric cipher commands allow data to be encrypted or decrypted
     using various block and stream ciphers using keys based on passwords or
     explicitly provided.  Base64 encoding or decoding can also be performed
     either by itself or in addition to the encryption or decryption.  The
     program can be called either as openssl ciphername or openssl enc
     -ciphername.

     Some of the ciphers do not have large keys and others have security
     implications if not used correctly.  All the block ciphers normally use
     PKCS#5 padding, also known as standard block padding.  If padding is
     disabled, the input data must be a multiple of the cipher block length.

     The options are as follows:

     -A      If the -a option is set, then base64 process the data on one
             line.

     -a, -base64
             Base64 process the data.  This means that if encryption is taking
             place, the data is base64-encoded after encryption.  If
             decryption is set, the input data is base64-decoded before being
             decrypted.

     -bufsize number
             Set the buffer size for I/O.

     -d      Decrypt the input data.

     -debug  Debug the BIOs used for I/O.

     -e      Encrypt the input data.  This is the default.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -iv IV  The actual IV (initialisation vector) to use: this must be
             represented as a string comprised only of hex digits.  When only
             the key is specified using the -K option, the IV must explicitly
             be defined.  When a password is being specified using one of the
             other options, the IV is generated from this password.

     -K key  The actual key to use: this must be represented as a string
             comprised only of hex digits.  If only the key is specified, the
             IV must also be specified using the -iv option.  When both a key
             and a password are specified, the key given with the -K option
             will be used and the IV generated from the password will be
             taken.  It probably does not make much sense to specify both key
             and password.

     -k password
             The password to derive the key from.  Superseded by the -pass
             option.

     -kfile file
             Read the password to derive the key from the first line of file.
             Superseded by the -pass option.

     -md digest
             Use digest to create a key from a pass phrase.  digest may be one
             of md5 or sha1.

     -none   Use NULL cipher (no encryption or decryption of input).

     -nopad  Disable standard block padding.

     -nosalt
             Don't use a salt in the key derivation routines.  This option
             should never be used since it makes it possible to perform
             efficient dictionary attacks on the password and to attack stream
             cipher encrypted data.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -P      Print out the salt, key, and IV used, then immediately exit;
             don't do any encryption or decryption.

     -p      Print out the salt, key, and IV used.

     -pass arg
             The password source.

     -S salt
             The actual salt to use: this must be represented as a string
             comprised only of hex digits.

     -salt   Use a salt in the key derivation routines (the default).  When
             the salt is being used the first eight bytes of the encrypted
             data are reserved for the salt: it is randomly generated when
             encrypting a file and read from the encrypted file when it is
             decrypted.


ERRSTR

     openssl errstr [-stats] errno ...

     The errstr command performs error number to error string conversion,
     generating a human-readable string representing the error code errno.
     The string is obtained through the ERR_error_string_n(3) function and has
     the following format:

           error:[error code]:[library name]:[function name]:[reason string]

     [error code] is an 8-digit hexadecimal number.  The remaining fields
     [library name], [function name], and [reason string] are all ASCII text.

     The options are as follows:

     -stats  Print debugging statistics about various aspects of the hash
             table.


GENDSA

     openssl gendsa [-aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3] [-out file]
                    [paramfile]

     The gendsa command generates a DSA private key from a DSA parameter file
     (typically generated by the openssl dsaparam command).  DSA key
     generation is little more than random number generation so it is much
     quicker than, for example, RSA key generation.

     The options are as follows:

     -aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3
             Encrypt the private key with the AES, DES, or the triple DES
             ciphers, respectively, before outputting it.  A pass phrase is
             prompted for.  If none of these options are specified, no
             encryption is used.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     paramfile
             Specify the DSA parameter file to use.  The parameters in this
             file determine the size of the private key.


GENPKEY

     openssl genpkey [-algorithm alg] [cipher] [-genparam] [-out file]
                     [-outform der | pem] [-paramfile file] [-pass arg]
                     [-pkeyopt opt:value] [-text]

     The genpkey command generates private keys.  The use of this program is
     encouraged over the algorithm specific utilities because additional
     algorithm options can be used.

     The options are as follows:

     -algorithm alg
             The public key algorithm to use, such as RSA, DSA, or DH.  This
             option must precede any -pkeyopt options.  The options -paramfile
             and -algorithm are mutually exclusive.

     cipher  Encrypt the private key with the supplied cipher.  Any algorithm
             name accepted by EVP_get_cipherbyname(3) is acceptable.

     -genparam
             Generate a set of parameters instead of a private key.  This
             option must precede any -algorithm, -paramfile, or -pkeyopt
             options.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -paramfile file
             Some public key algorithms generate a private key based on a set
             of parameters, which can be supplied using this option.  If this
             option is used the public key algorithm used is determined by the
             parameters.  This option must precede any -pkeyopt options.  The
             options -paramfile and -algorithm are mutually exclusive.

     -pass arg
             The output file password source.

     -pkeyopt opt:value
             Set the public key algorithm option opt to value, as follows:

                   rsa_keygen_bits:numbits
                           (RSA) The number of bits in the generated key.  The
                           default is 2048.

                   rsa_keygen_pubexp:value
                           (RSA) The RSA public exponent value.  This can be a
                           large decimal or hexadecimal value if preceded by
                           0x.  The default is 65537.

                   dsa_paramgen_bits:numbits
                           (DSA) The number of bits in the generated
                           parameters.  The default is 1024.

                   dh_paramgen_prime_len:numbits
                           (DH) The number of bits in the prime parameter p.

                   dh_paramgen_generator:value
                           (DH) The value to use for the generator g.

                   ec_paramgen_curve:curve
                           (EC) The EC curve to use.

     -text   Print the private/public key in plain text.


GENRSA

     openssl genrsa [-3 | -f4] [-aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3]
                    [-out file] [-passout arg] [numbits]

     The genrsa command generates an RSA private key, which essentially
     involves the generation of two prime numbers.  When generating the key,
     various symbols will be output to indicate the progress of the
     generation.  A `.' represents each number which has passed an initial
     sieve test; `+' means a number has passed a single round of the Miller-
     Rabin primality test.  A newline means that the number has passed all the
     prime tests (the actual number depends on the key size).

     The options are as follows:

     -3 | -f4
             The public exponent to use, either 3 or 65537.  The default is
             65537.

     -aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3
             Encrypt the private key with the AES, DES, or the triple DES
             ciphers, respectively, before outputting it.  If none of these
             options are specified, no encryption is used.  If encryption is
             used, a pass phrase is prompted for, if it is not supplied via
             the -passout option.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -passout arg
             The output file password source.

     numbits
             The size of the private key to generate in bits.  This must be
             the last option specified.  The default is 2048.


NSEQ

     openssl nseq [-in file] [-out file] [-toseq]

     The nseq command takes a file containing a Netscape certificate sequence
     (an alternative to the standard PKCS#7 format) and prints out the
     certificates contained in it, or takes a file of certificates and
     converts it into a Netscape certificate sequence.

     The options are as follows:

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -toseq  Normally, a Netscape certificate sequence will be input and the
             output is the certificates contained in it.  With the -toseq
             option the situation is reversed: a Netscape certificate sequence
             is created from a file of certificates.


OCSP

     openssl ocsp [-CA file] [-CAfile file] [-CApath directory] [-cert file]
                  [-dgst alg] [-host hostname:port] [-index indexfile]
                  [-issuer file] [-ndays days] [-nmin minutes]
                  [-no_cert_checks] [-no_cert_verify] [-no_certs] [-no_chain]
                  [-no_intern] [-no_nonce] [-no_signature_verify] [-nonce]
                  [-noverify] [-nrequest number] [-out file] [-path path]
                  [-port portnum] [-req_text] [-reqin file] [-reqout file]
                  [-resp_key_id] [-resp_no_certs] [-resp_text] [-respin file]
                  [-respout file] [-rkey file] [-rother file] [-rsigner file]
                  [-serial number] [-sign_other file] [-signer file]
                  [-signkey file] [-status_age age] [-text] [-trust_other]
                  [-url responder_url] [-VAfile file] [-validity_period nsec]
                  [-verify_other file]

     The Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) enables applications to
     determine the (revocation) state of an identified certificate (RFC 2560).

     The ocsp command performs many common OCSP tasks.  It can be used to
     print out requests and responses, create requests and send queries to an
     OCSP responder, and behave like a mini OCSP server itself.

     The options are as follows:

     -CAfile file, -CApath directory
             A file or path containing trusted CA certificates, used to verify
             the signature on the OCSP response.

     -cert file
             Add the certificate file to the request.  The issuer certificate
             is taken from the previous -issuer option, or an error occurs if
             no issuer certificate is specified.

     -dgst alg
             Use the digest algorithm alg for certificate identification in
             the OCSP request.  By default SHA-1 is used.

     -host hostname:port, -path path
             Send the OCSP request to hostname on port.  -path specifies the
             HTTP path name to use, or / by default.

     -issuer file
             The current issuer certificate, in PEM format.  Can be used
             multiple times and must come before any -cert options.

     -no_cert_checks
             Don't perform any additional checks on the OCSP response signer's
             certificate.  That is, do not make any checks to see if the
             signer's certificate is authorised to provide the necessary
             status information: as a result this option should only be used
             for testing purposes.

     -no_cert_verify
             Don't verify the OCSP response signer's certificate at all.
             Since this option allows the OCSP response to be signed by any
             certificate, it should only be used for testing purposes.

     -no_certs
             Don't include any certificates in the signed request.

     -no_chain
             Do not use certificates in the response as additional untrusted
             CA certificates.

     -no_intern
             Ignore certificates contained in the OCSP response when searching
             for the signer's certificate.  The signer's certificate must be
             specified with either the -verify_other or -VAfile options.

     -no_signature_verify
             Don't check the signature on the OCSP response.  Since this
             option tolerates invalid signatures on OCSP responses, it will
             normally only be used for testing purposes.

     -nonce, -no_nonce
             Add an OCSP nonce extension to a request, or disable an OCSP
             nonce addition.  Normally, if an OCSP request is input using the
             -respin option no nonce is added: using the -nonce option will
             force the addition of a nonce.  If an OCSP request is being
             created (using the -cert and -serial options) a nonce is
             automatically added; specifying -no_nonce overrides this.

     -noverify
             Don't attempt to verify the OCSP response signature or the nonce
             values.  This is normally only be used for debugging since it
             disables all verification of the responder's certificate.

     -out file
             Specify the output file to write to, or standard output if not
             specified.

     -req_text, -resp_text, -text
             Print out the text form of the OCSP request, response, or both,
             respectively.

     -reqin file, -respin file
             Read an OCSP request or response file from file.  These options
             are ignored if an OCSP request or response creation is implied by
             other options (for example with the -serial, -cert, and -host
             options).

     -reqout file, -respout file
             Write out the DER-encoded certificate request or response to
             file.

     -serial num
             Same as the -cert option except the certificate with serial
             number num is added to the request.  The serial number is
             interpreted as a decimal integer unless preceded by `0x'.
             Negative integers can also be specified by preceding the value
             with a minus sign.

     -sign_other file
             Additional certificates to include in the signed request.

     -signer file, -signkey file
             Sign the OCSP request using the certificate specified in the
             -signer option and the private key specified by the -signkey
             option.  If the -signkey option is not present, then the private
             key is read from the same file as the certificate.  If neither
             option is specified, the OCSP request is not signed.

     -trust_other
             The certificates specified by the -verify_other option should be
             explicitly trusted and no additional checks will be performed on
             them.  This is useful when the complete responder certificate
             chain is not available or trusting a root CA is not appropriate.

     -url responder_url
             Specify the responder URL.  Both HTTP and HTTPS (SSL/TLS) URLs
             can be specified.

     -VAfile file
             A file containing explicitly trusted responder certificates.
             Equivalent to the -verify_other and -trust_other options.

     -validity_period nsec, -status_age age
             The range of times, in seconds, which will be tolerated in an
             OCSP response.  Each certificate status response includes a
             notBefore time and an optional notAfter time.  The current time
             should fall between these two values, but the interval between
             the two times may be only a few seconds.  In practice the OCSP
             responder and clients' clocks may not be precisely synchronised
             and so such a check may fail.  To avoid this the -validity_period
             option can be used to specify an acceptable error range in
             seconds, the default value being 5 minutes.

             If the notAfter time is omitted from a response, it means that
             new status information is immediately available.  In this case
             the age of the notBefore field is checked to see it is not older
             than age seconds old.  By default, this additional check is not
             performed.

     -verify_other file
             A file containing additional certificates to search when
             attempting to locate the OCSP response signing certificate.  Some
             responders omit the actual signer's certificate from the
             response, so this can be used to supply the necessary
             certificate.

     The options for the OCSP server are as follows:

     -CA file
           CA certificate corresponding to the revocation information in
           indexfile.

     -index indexfile
           indexfile is a text index file in ca format containing certificate
           revocation information.

           If this option is specified, ocsp is in responder mode, otherwise
           it is in client mode.  The requests the responder processes can be
           either specified on the command line (using the -issuer and -serial
           options), supplied in a file (using the -respin option), or via
           external OCSP clients (if port or url is specified).

           If this option is present, then the -CA and -rsigner options must
           also be present.

     -nmin minutes, -ndays days
           Number of minutes or days when fresh revocation information is
           available: used in the nextUpdate field.  If neither option is
           present, the nextUpdate field is omitted, meaning fresh revocation
           information is immediately available.

     -nrequest number
           Exit after receiving number requests (the default is unlimited).

     -port portnum
           Port to listen for OCSP requests on.  May also be specified using
           the -url option.

     -resp_key_id
           Identify the signer certificate using the key ID; the default is to
           use the subject name.

     -resp_no_certs
           Don't include any certificates in the OCSP response.

     -rkey file
           The private key to sign OCSP responses with; if not present, the
           file specified in the -rsigner option is used.

     -rother file
           Additional certificates to include in the OCSP response.

     -rsigner file
           The certificate to sign OCSP responses with.

     Initially the OCSP responder certificate is located and the signature on
     the OCSP request checked using the responder certificate's public key.
     Then a normal certificate verify is performed on the OCSP responder
     certificate building up a certificate chain in the process.  The
     locations of the trusted certificates used to build the chain can be
     specified by the -CAfile and -CApath options or they will be looked for
     in the standard openssl certificates directory.

     If the initial verify fails, the OCSP verify process halts with an error.
     Otherwise the issuing CA certificate in the request is compared to the
     OCSP responder certificate: if there is a match then the OCSP verify
     succeeds.

     Otherwise the OCSP responder certificate's CA is checked against the
     issuing CA certificate in the request.  If there is a match and the
     OCSPSigning extended key usage is present in the OCSP responder
     certificate, then the OCSP verify succeeds.

     Otherwise the root CA of the OCSP responder's CA is checked to see if it
     is trusted for OCSP signing.  If it is, the OCSP verify succeeds.

     If none of these checks is successful, the OCSP verify fails.  What this
     effectively means is that if the OCSP responder certificate is authorised
     directly by the CA it is issuing revocation information about (and it is
     correctly configured), then verification will succeed.

     If the OCSP responder is a global responder, which can give details about
     multiple CAs and has its own separate certificate chain, then its root CA
     can be trusted for OCSP signing.  Alternatively, the responder
     certificate itself can be explicitly trusted with the -VAfile option.


PASSWD

     openssl passwd [-1 | -apr1 | -crypt] [-in file] [-noverify] [-quiet]
                    [-reverse] [-salt string] [-stdin] [-table] [password]

     The passwd command computes the hash of a password.

     The options are as follows:

     -1      Use the MD5 based BSD password algorithm "1".

     -apr1   Use the "apr1" algorithm (Apache variant of the BSD algorithm).

     -crypt  Use the "crypt" algorithm (the default).

     -in file
             Read passwords from file.

     -noverify
             Don't verify when reading a password from the terminal.

     -quiet  Don't output warnings when passwords given on the command line
             are truncated.

     -reverse
             Switch table columns.  This only makes sense in conjunction with
             the -table option.

     -salt string
             Use the salt specified by string.  When reading a password from
             the terminal, this implies -noverify.

     -stdin  Read passwords from standard input.

     -table  In the output list, prepend the cleartext password and a TAB
             character to each password hash.


PKCS7

     openssl pkcs7 [-in file] [-inform der | pem] [-noout] [-out file]
                   [-outform der | pem] [-print_certs] [-text]

     The pkcs7 command processes PKCS#7 files in DER or PEM format.  The
     PKCS#7 routines only understand PKCS#7 v 1.5 as specified in RFC 2315.

     The options are as follows:

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -noout  Don't output the encoded version of the PKCS#7 structure (or
             certificates if -print_certs is set).

     -out file
             The output to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -print_certs
             Print any certificates or CRLs contained in the file, preceded by
             their subject and issuer names in a one-line format.

     -text   Print certificate details in full rather than just subject and
             issuer names.


PKCS8

     openssl pkcs8 [-embed] [-in file] [-inform der | pem] [-nocrypt]
                   [-noiter] [-nooct] [-nsdb] [-out file] [-outform der | pem]
                   [-passin arg] [-passout arg] [-topk8] [-v1 alg] [-v2 alg]

     The pkcs8 command processes private keys (both encrypted and unencrypted)
     in PKCS#8 format with a variety of PKCS#5 (v1.5 and v2.0) and PKCS#12
     algorithms.  The default encryption is only 56 bits; keys encrypted using
     PKCS#5 v2.0 algorithms and high iteration counts are more secure.

     The options are as follows:

     -embed  Generate DSA keys in a broken format.  The DSA parameters are
             embedded inside the PrivateKey structure.  In this form the OCTET
             STRING contains an ASN.1 SEQUENCE consisting of two structures: a
             SEQUENCE containing the parameters and an ASN.1 INTEGER
             containing the private key.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.
             If the key is encrypted, a pass phrase will be prompted for.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -nocrypt
             Generate an unencrypted PrivateKeyInfo structure.  This option
             does not encrypt private keys at all and should only be used when
             absolutely necessary.

     -noiter
             Use an iteration count of 1.  See the PKCS12 section below for a
             detailed explanation of this option.

     -nooct  Generate RSA private keys in a broken format that some software
             uses.  Specifically the private key should be enclosed in an
             OCTET STRING, but some software just includes the structure
             itself without the surrounding OCTET STRING.

     -nsdb   Generate DSA keys in a broken format compatible with Netscape
             private key databases.  The PrivateKey contains a SEQUENCE
             consisting of the public and private keys, respectively.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if none is
             specified.  If any encryption options are set, a pass phrase will
             be prompted for.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -passin arg
             The key password source.

     -passout arg
             The output file password source.

     -topk8  Read a traditional format private key and write a PKCS#8 format
             key.

     -v1 alg
             Specify a PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 algorithm to use.

             PBE-MD5-DES
                   56-bit DES.
             PBE-SHA1-RC2-64 | PBE-MD5-RC2-64 | PBE-SHA1-DES
                   64-bit RC2 or 56-bit DES.
             PBE-SHA1-RC4-128 | PBE-SHA1-RC4-40 | PBE-SHA1-3DES
             PBE-SHA1-2DES | PBE-SHA1-RC2-128 | PBE-SHA1-RC2-40
                   PKCS#12 password-based encryption algorithm, which allow
                   strong encryption algorithms like triple DES or 128-bit
                   RC2.

     -v2 alg
             Use PKCS#5 v2.0 algorithms.  Supports algorithms such as 168-bit
             triple DES or 128-bit RC2, however not many implementations
             support PKCS#5 v2.0 yet (if using private keys with openssl this
             doesn't matter).

             alg is the encryption algorithm to use; valid values include des,
             des3, and rc2.  It is recommended that des3 is used.


PKCS12

     openssl pkcs12 [-aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3] [-cacerts]
                    [-CAfile file] [-caname name] [-CApath directory]
                    [-certfile file] [-certpbe alg] [-chain] [-clcerts]
                    [-CSP name] [-descert] [-export] [-in file] [-info]
                    [-inkey file] [-keyex] [-keypbe alg] [-keysig]
                    [-macalg alg] [-maciter] [-name name] [-nocerts] [-nodes]
                    [-noiter] [-nokeys] [-nomac] [-nomaciter] [-nomacver]
                    [-noout] [-out file] [-passin arg] [-passout arg]
                    [-twopass]

     The pkcs12 command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as PFX
     files) to be created and parsed.  By default, a PKCS#12 file is parsed; a
     PKCS#12 file can be created by using the -export option.

     The options for parsing a PKCS12 file are as follows:

     -aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3
           Encrypt private keys using AES, DES, or triple DES, respectively.
           The default is triple DES.

     -cacerts
           Only output CA certificates (not client certificates).

     -clcerts
           Only output client certificates (not CA certificates).

     -in file
           The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -info
           Output additional information about the PKCS#12 file structure,
           algorithms used, and iteration counts.

     -nocerts
           Do not output certificates.

     -nodes
           Do not encrypt private keys.

     -nokeys
           Do not output private keys.

     -nomacver
           Do not attempt to verify the integrity MAC before reading the file.

     -noout
           Do not output the keys and certificates to the output file version
           of the PKCS#12 file.

     -out file
           The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -passin arg
           The key password source.

     -passout arg
           The output file password source.

     -twopass
           Prompt for separate integrity and encryption passwords: most
           software always assumes these are the same so this option will
           render such PKCS#12 files unreadable.

     The options for PKCS12 file creation are as follows:

     -CAfile file
           CA storage as a file.

     -CApath directory
           CA storage as a directory.  The directory must be a standard
           certificate directory: that is, a hash of each subject name (using
           x509 -hash) should be linked to each certificate.

     -caname name
           Specify the "friendly name" for other certificates.  May be used
           multiple times to specify names for all certificates in the order
           they appear.

     -certfile file
           A file to read additional certificates from.

     -certpbe alg, -keypbe alg
           Specify the algorithm used to encrypt the private key and
           certificates to be selected.  Any PKCS#5 v1.5 or PKCS#12 PBE
           algorithm name can be used.  If a cipher name (as output by the
           list-cipher-algorithms command) is specified then it is used with
           PKCS#5 v2.0.  For interoperability reasons it is advisable to only
           use PKCS#12 algorithms.

     -chain
           Include the entire certificate chain of the user certificate.  The
           standard CA store is used for this search.  If the search fails, it
           is considered a fatal error.

     -CSP name
           Write name as a Microsoft CSP name.

     -descert
           Encrypt the certificate using triple DES; this may render the
           PKCS#12 file unreadable by some "export grade" software.  By
           default, the private key is encrypted using triple DES and the
           certificate using 40-bit RC2.

     -export
           Create a PKCS#12 file (rather than parsing one).

     -in file
           The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.
           The order doesn't matter but one private key and its corresponding
           certificate should be present.  If additional certificates are
           present, they will also be included in the PKCS#12 file.

     -inkey file
           File to read a private key from.  If not present, a private key
           must be present in the input file.

     -keyex | -keysig
           Specify whether the private key is to be used for key exchange or
           just signing.  Normally, "export grade" software will only allow
           512-bit RSA keys to be used for encryption purposes, but arbitrary
           length keys for signing.  The -keysig option marks the key for
           signing only.  Signing only keys can be used for S/MIME signing,
           authenticode (ActiveX control signing) and SSL client
           authentication.

     -macalg alg
           Specify the MAC digest algorithm.  The default is SHA1.

     -maciter
           Included for compatibility only: it used to be needed to use MAC
           iterations counts but they are now used by default.

     -name name
           Specify the "friendly name" for the certificate and private key.
           This name is typically displayed in list boxes by software
           importing the file.

     -nomac
           Don't attempt to provide the MAC integrity.

     -nomaciter, -noiter
           Affect the iteration counts on the MAC and key algorithms.

           To discourage attacks by using large dictionaries of common
           passwords, the algorithm that derives keys from passwords can have
           an iteration count applied to it: this causes a certain part of the
           algorithm to be repeated and slows it down.  The MAC is used to
           check the file integrity but since it will normally have the same
           password as the keys and certificates it could also be attacked.
           By default, both MAC and encryption iteration counts are set to
           2048; using these options the MAC and encryption iteration counts
           can be set to 1.  Since this reduces the file security you should
           not use these options unless you really have to.  Most software
           supports both MAC and key iteration counts.

     -out file
           The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -passin arg
           The key password source.

     -passout arg
           The output file password source.


PKEY

     openssl pkey [cipher] [-in file] [-inform der | pem] [-noout] [-out file]
                  [-outform der | pem] [-passin arg] [-passout arg] [-pubin]
                  [-pubout] [-text] [-text_pub]

     The pkey command processes public or private keys.  They can be converted
     between various forms and their components printed out.

     The options are as follows:

     cipher  Encrypt the private key with the specified cipher.  Any algorithm
             name accepted by EVP_get_cipherbyname(3) is acceptable, such as
             des3.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.
             If the key is encrypted a pass phrase will be prompted for.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the key.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.
             If any encryption options are set then a pass phrase will be
             prompted for.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -passin arg
             The key password source.

     -passout arg
             The output file password source.

     -pubin  Read in a public key, not a private key.

     -pubout
             Output a public key, not a private key.  Automatically set if the
             input is a public key.

     -text   Print the public/private key in plain text.

     -text_pub
             Print out only public key components even if a private key is
             being processed.


PKEYPARAM

     openssl pkeyparam [-in file] [-noout] [-out file] [-text]

     The pkeyparam command processes public or private keys.  The key type is
     determined by the PEM headers.

     The options are as follows:

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the parameters.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -text   Print the parameters in plain text.


PKEYUTL

     openssl pkeyutl [-asn1parse] [-certin] [-decrypt] [-derive] [-encrypt]
                     [-hexdump] [-in file] [-inkey file] [-keyform der | pem]
                     [-out file] [-passin arg] [-peerform der | pem]
                     [-peerkey file] [-pkeyopt opt:value] [-pubin] [-rev]
                     [-sigfile file] [-sign] [-verify] [-verifyrecover]

     The pkeyutl command can be used to perform public key operations using
     any supported algorithm.

     The options are as follows:

     -asn1parse
             ASN.1 parse the output data.  This is useful when combined with
             the -verifyrecover option when an ASN.1 structure is signed.

     -certin
             The input is a certificate containing a public key.

     -decrypt
             Decrypt the input data using a private key.

     -derive
             Derive a shared secret using the peer key.

     -encrypt
             Encrypt the input data using a public key.

     -hexdump
             Hex dump the output data.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -inkey file
             The input key file.  By default it should be a private key.

     -keyform der | pem
             The key format.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -passin arg
             The key password source.

     -peerform der | pem
             The peer key format.

     -peerkey file
             The peer key file, used by key derivation (agreement) operations.

     -pkeyopt opt:value
             Set the public key algorithm option opt to value.  Unless
             otherwise mentioned, all algorithms support the format
             digest:alg, which specifies the digest to use for sign, verify,
             and verifyrecover operations.  The value alg should represent a
             digest name as used in the EVP_get_digestbyname(3) function.

             The RSA algorithm supports the encrypt, decrypt, sign, verify,
             and verifyrecover operations in general.  Some padding modes only
             support some of these operations however.

             rsa_padding_mode:mode
                     This sets the RSA padding mode.  Acceptable values for
                     mode are pkcs1 for PKCS#1 padding; none for no padding;
                     oaep for OAEP mode; x931 for X9.31 mode; and pss for PSS.

                     In PKCS#1 padding if the message digest is not set then
                     the supplied data is signed or verified directly instead
                     of using a DigestInfo structure.  If a digest is set then
                     a DigestInfo structure is used and its length must
                     correspond to the digest type.  For oeap mode only
                     encryption and decryption is supported.  For x931 if the
                     digest type is set it is used to format the block data;
                     otherwise the first byte is used to specify the X9.31
                     digest ID.  Sign, verify, and verifyrecover can be
                     performed in this mode.  For pss mode only sign and
                     verify are supported and the digest type must be
                     specified.

             rsa_pss_saltlen:len
                     For pss mode only this option specifies the salt length.
                     Two special values are supported: -1 sets the salt length
                     to the digest length.  When signing -2 sets the salt
                     length to the maximum permissible value.  When verifying
                     -2 causes the salt length to be automatically determined
                     based on the PSS block structure.

             The DSA algorithm supports the sign and verify operations.
             Currently there are no additional options other than digest.
             Only the SHA1 digest can be used and this digest is assumed by
             default.

             The DH algorithm supports the derive operation and no additional
             options.

             The EC algorithm supports the sign, verify, and derive
             operations.  The sign and verify operations use ECDSA and derive
             uses ECDH.  Currently there are no additional options other than
             digest.  Only the SHA1 digest can be used and this digest is
             assumed by default.

     -pubin  The input file is a public key.

     -rev    Reverse the order of the input buffer.

     -sigfile file
             Signature file (verify operation only).

     -sign   Sign the input data and output the signed result.  This requires
             a private key.

     -verify
             Verify the input data against the signature file and indicate if
             the verification succeeded or failed.

     -verifyrecover
             Verify the input data and output the recovered data.


PRIME

     openssl prime [-bits n] [-checks n] [-generate] [-hex] [-safe] p

     The prime command is used to generate prime numbers, or to check numbers
     for primality.  Results are probabilistic: they have an exceedingly high
     likelihood of being correct, but are not guaranteed.

     The options are as follows:

     -bits n
             Specify the number of bits in the generated prime number.  Must
             be used in conjunction with -generate.

     -checks n
             Perform a Miller-Rabin probabilistic primality test with n
             iterations.  The default is 20.

     -generate
             Generate a pseudo-random prime number.  Must be used in
             conjunction with -bits.

     -hex    Output in hex format.

     -safe   Generate only "safe" prime numbers (i.e. a prime p so that
             (p-1)/2 is also prime).

     p       Test if number p is prime.


RAND

     openssl rand [-base64] [-hex] [-out file] num

     The rand command outputs num pseudo-random bytes.

     The options are as follows:

     -base64
             Perform base64 encoding on the output.

     -hex    Specify hexadecimal output.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.


REQ

     openssl req [-asn1-kludge] [-batch] [-config file] [-days n]
                 [-extensions section] [-in file] [-inform der | pem]
                 [-key keyfile] [-keyform der | pem] [-keyout file]
                 [-md4 | -md5 | -sha1] [-modulus] [-nameopt option] [-new]
                 [-newhdr] [-newkey arg] [-no-asn1-kludge] [-nodes] [-noout]
                 [-out file] [-outform der | pem] [-passin arg] [-passout arg]
                 [-pubkey] [-reqexts section] [-reqopt option] [-set_serial n]
                 [-subj arg] [-subject] [-text] [-utf8] [-verbose] [-verify]
                 [-x509]

     The req command primarily creates and processes certificate requests in
     PKCS#10 format.  It can additionally create self-signed certificates, for
     use as root CAs, for example.

     The options are as follows:

     -asn1-kludge
             Produce requests in an invalid format for certain picky CAs.
             Very few CAs still require the use of this option.

     -batch  Non-interactive mode.

     -config file
             Specify an alternative configuration file.

     -days n
             Specify the number of days to certify the certificate for.  The
             default is 30 days.  Used with the -x509 option.

     -extensions section, -reqexts section
             Specify alternative sections to include certificate extensions
             (with -x509) or certificate request extensions, allowing several
             different sections to be used in the same configuration file.

     -in file
             The input file to read a request from, or standard input if not
             specified.  A request is only read if the creation options -new
             and -newkey are not specified.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.

     -key keyfile
             The file to read the private key from.  It also accepts PKCS#8
             format private keys for PEM format files.

     -keyform der | pem
             The format of the private key file specified in the -key
             argument.  The default is pem.

     -keyout file
             The file to write the newly created private key to.  If this
             option is not specified, the filename present in the
             configuration file is used.

     -md5 | -sha1 | -sha256
             The message digest to sign the request with.  This overrides the
             digest algorithm specified in the configuration file.

             Some public key algorithms may override this choice.  For
             instance, DSA signatures always use SHA1.

     -modulus
             Print the value of the modulus of the public key contained in the
             request.

     -nameopt option, -reqopt option
             Determine how the subject or issuer names are displayed.  option
             can be a single option or multiple options separated by commas.
             Alternatively, these options may be used more than once to set
             multiple options.  See the X509 section below for details.

     -new    Generate a new certificate request.  The user is prompted for the
             relevant field values.  The actual fields prompted for and their
             maximum and minimum sizes are specified in the configuration file
             and any requested extensions.

             If the -key option is not used, it will generate a new RSA
             private key using information specified in the configuration
             file.

     -newhdr
             Add the word NEW to the PEM file header and footer lines on the
             outputed request.  Some software and CAs need this.

     -newkey arg
             Create a new certificate request and a new private key.  The
             argument takes one of several forms.

             rsa:nbits generates an RSA key nbits in size.  If nbits is
             omitted the default key size is used.

             dsa:file generates a DSA key using the parameters in file.

             param:file generates a key using the parameters or certificate in
             file.

             All other algorithms support the form algorithm:file, where file
             may be an algorithm parameter file, created by the genpkey
             -genparam command or an X.509 certificate for a key with
             appropriate algorithm.  file can be omitted, in which case any
             parameters can be specified via the -pkeyopt option.

     -no-asn1-kludge
             Reverse the effect of -asn1-kludge.

     -nodes  Do not encrypt the private key.

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the request.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not spceified.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -passin arg
             The key password source.

     -passout arg
             The output file password source.

     -pubkey
             Output the public key.

     -reqopt option
             Customise the output format used with -text.  The option argument
             can be a single option or multiple options separated by commas.
             See also the discussion of -certopt in the x509 command.

     -set_serial n
             Serial number to use when outputting a self-signed certificate.
             This may be specified as a decimal value or a hex value if
             preceded by `0x'.  It is possible to use negative serial numbers
             but this is not recommended.

     -subj arg
             Replaces the subject field of an input request with the specified
             data and output the modified request.  arg must be formatted as
             /type0=value0/type1=value1/type2=...; characters may be escaped
             by `\' (backslash); no spaces are skipped.

     -subject
             Print the request subject (or certificate subject if -x509 is
             specified).

     -text   Print the certificate request in plain text.

     -utf8   Interpret field values as UTF8 strings, not ASCII.

     -verbose
             Print extra details about the operations being performed.

     -verify
             Verify the signature on the request.

     -x509   Output a self-signed certificate instead of a certificate
             request.  This is typically used to generate a test certificate
             or a self-signed root CA.  The extensions added to the
             certificate (if any) are specified in the configuration file.
             Unless specified using the -set_serial option, 0 is used for the
             serial number.

     The configuration options are specified in the "req" section of the
     configuration file.  The options available are as follows:

     attributes
           The section containing any request attributes: its format is the
           same as distinguished_name.  Typically these may contain the
           challengePassword or unstructuredName types.  They are currently
           ignored by the openssl request signing utilities, but some CAs
           might want them.

     default_bits
           The default key size, in bits.  The default is 2048.  It is used if
           the -new option is used and can be overridden by using the -newkey
           option.

     default_keyfile
           The default file to write a private key to, or standard output if
           not specified.  It can be overridden by the -keyout option.

     default_md
           The digest algorithm to use.  Possible values include md5, sha1 and
           sha256 (the default).  It can be overridden on the command line.

     distinguished_name
           The section containing the distinguished name fields to prompt for
           when generating a certificate or certificate request.  The format
           is described below.

     encrypt_key
           If set to "no" and a private key is generated, it is not encrypted.
           It is equivalent to the -nodes option.  For compatibility,
           encrypt_rsa_key is an equivalent option.

     input_password | output_password
           The passwords for the input private key file (if present) and the
           output private key file (if one will be created).  The command line
           options -passin and -passout override the configuration file
           values.

     oid_file
           A file containing additional OBJECT IDENTIFIERS.  Each line of the
           file should consist of the numerical form of the object identifier,
           followed by whitespace, then the short name followed by whitespace
           and finally the long name.

     oid_section
           Specify a section in the configuration file containing extra object
           identifiers.  Each line should consist of the short name of the
           object identifier followed by `=' and the numerical form.  The
           short and long names are the same when this option is used.

     prompt
           If set to "no", it disables prompting of certificate fields and
           just takes values from the config file directly.  It also changes
           the expected format of the distinguished_name and attributes
           sections.

     req_extensions
           The configuration file section containing a list of extensions to
           add to the certificate request.  It can be overridden by the
           -reqexts option.

     string_mask
           Limit the string types for encoding certain fields.  The following
           values may be used, limiting strings to the indicated types:

           utf8only     UTF8String.  This is the default, as recommended by
                        PKIX in RFC 2459.

           default      PrintableString, IA5String, T61String, BMPString,
                        UTF8String.

           pkix         PrintableString, IA5String, BMPString, UTF8String.
                        Inspired by the PKIX recommendation in RFC 2459 for
                        certificates generated before 2004, but differs by
                        also permitting IA5String.

           nombstr      PrintableString, IA5String, T61String,
                        UniversalString.  A workaround for some ancient
                        software that had problems with the variable-sized
                        BMPString and UTF8String types.

           MASK:number  An explicit bitmask of permitted types, where number
                        is a C-style hex, decimal, or octal number that's a
                        bit-wise OR of B_ASN1_* values from <openssl/asn1.h>.

     utf8  If set to "yes", field values are interpreted as UTF8 strings.

     x509_extensions
           The configuration file section containing a list of extensions to
           add to a certificate generated when the -x509 switch is used.  It
           can be overridden by the -extensions command line switch.

     There are two separate formats for the distinguished name and attribute
     sections.  If the -prompt option is set to "no", then these sections just
     consist of field names and values.  If the -prompt option is absent or
     not set to "no", then the file contains field prompting information of
     the form:

           fieldName="prompt"
           fieldName_default="default field value"
           fieldName_min= 2
           fieldName_max= 4

     "fieldName" is the field name being used, for example commonName (or CN).
     The "prompt" string is used to ask the user to enter the relevant
     details.  If the user enters nothing, the default value is used; if no
     default value is present, the field is omitted.  A field can still be
     omitted if a default value is present, if the user just enters the `.'
     character.

     The number of characters entered must be between the fieldName_min and
     fieldName_max limits: there may be additional restrictions based on the
     field being used (for example countryName can only ever be two characters
     long and must fit in a PrintableString).

     Some fields (such as organizationName) can be used more than once in a
     DN.  This presents a problem because configuration files will not
     recognize the same name occurring twice.  To avoid this problem, if the
     fieldName contains some characters followed by a full stop, they will be
     ignored.  So, for example, a second organizationName can be input by
     calling it "1.organizationName".

     The actual permitted field names are any object identifier short or long
     names.  These are compiled into openssl and include the usual values such
     as commonName, countryName, localityName, organizationName,
     organizationUnitName, stateOrProvinceName.  Additionally, emailAddress is
     included as well as name, surname, givenName, initials and dnQualifier.

     Additional object identifiers can be defined with the oid_file or
     oid_section options in the configuration file.  Any additional fields
     will be treated as though they were a DirectoryString.


RSA

     openssl rsa [-aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3] [-check]
                 [-in file] [-inform der | net | pem] [-modulus] [-noout]
                 [-out file] [-outform der | net | pem] [-passin arg]
                 [-passout arg] [-pubin] [-pubout] [-sgckey] [-text]

     The rsa command processes RSA keys.  They can be converted between
     various forms and their components printed out.  rsa uses the traditional
     SSLeay compatible format for private key encryption: newer applications
     should use the more secure PKCS#8 format using the pkcs8 utility.

     The options are as follows:

     -aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3
             Encrypt the private key with the AES, DES, or the triple DES
             ciphers, respectively, before outputting it.  A pass phrase is
             prompted for.  If none of these options are specified, the key is
             written in plain text.  This means that using the rsa utility to
             read in an encrypted key with no encryption option can be used to
             remove the pass phrase from a key, or by setting the encryption
             options it can be used to add or change the pass phrase.  These
             options can only be used with PEM format output files.

     -check  Check the consistency of an RSA private key.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.
             If the key is encrypted, a pass phrase will be prompted for.

     -inform der | net | pem
             The input format.

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the key.

     -modulus
             Print the value of the modulus of the key.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -outform der | net | pem
             The output format.

     -passin arg
             The key password source.

     -passout arg
             The output file password source.

     -pubin  Read in a public key, not a private key.

     -pubout
             Output a public key, not a private key.  Automatically set if the
             input is a public key.

     -sgckey
             Use the modified NET algorithm used with some versions of
             Microsoft IIS and SGC keys.

     -text   Print the public/private key components in plain text.


RSAUTL

     openssl rsautl [-asn1parse] [-certin] [-decrypt] [-encrypt] [-hexdump]
                    [-in file] [-inkey file] [-keyform der | pem]
                    [-oaep | -pkcs | -raw] [-out file] [-pubin] [-sign]
                    [-verify]

     The rsautl command can be used to sign, verify, encrypt and decrypt data
     using the RSA algorithm.

     The options are as follows:

     -asn1parse
             Asn1parse the output data; this is useful when combined with the
             -verify option.

     -certin
             The input is a certificate containing an RSA public key.

     -decrypt
             Decrypt the input data using an RSA private key.

     -encrypt
             Encrypt the input data using an RSA public key.

     -hexdump
             Hex dump the output data.

     -in file
             The input to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -inkey file
             The input key file; by default an RSA private key.

     -keyform der | pem
             The private key format.  The default is pem.

     -oaep | -pkcs | -raw
             The padding to use: PKCS#1 OAEP, PKCS#1 v1.5 (the default), or no
             padding, respectively.  For signatures, only -pkcs and -raw can
             be used.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -pubin  The input file is an RSA public key.

     -sign   Sign the input data and output the signed result.  This requires
             an RSA private key.

     -verify
             Verify the input data and output the recovered data.


S_CLIENT

     openssl s_client [-4 | -6] [-bugs] [-CAfile file] [-CApath directory]
                      [-cert file] [-check_ss_sig] [-cipher cipherlist]
                      [-connect host[:port]] [-crl_check] [-crl_check_all]
                      [-crlf] [-debug] [-extended_crl] [-ign_eof]
                      [-ignore_critical] [-issuer_checks] [-key keyfile]
                      [-msg] [-nbio] [-nbio_test] [-no_ticket] [-no_tls1]
                      [-no_tls1_1] [-no_tls1_2] [-pause] [-policy_check]
                      [-prexit] [-proxy host:port] [-psk key]
                      [-psk_identity identity] [-quiet] [-reconnect]
                      [-servername name] [-showcerts] [-starttls protocol]
                      [-state] [-tls1] [-tls1_1] [-tls1_2] [-tlsextdebug]
                      [-verify depth] [-x509_strict] [-xmpphost host]

     The s_client command implements a generic SSL/TLS client which connects
     to a remote host using SSL/TLS.

     If a connection is established with an SSL server, any data received from
     the server is displayed and any key presses will be sent to the server.
     When used interactively (which means neither -quiet nor -ign_eof have
     been given), the session will be renegotiated if the line begins with an
     R; if the line begins with a Q or if end of file is reached, the
     connection will be closed down.

     The options are as follows:

     -4      Attempt connections using IPv4 only.

     -6      Attempt connections using IPv6 only.

     -bugs   Enable various workarounds for buggy implementations.

     -CAfile file
             A file containing trusted certificates to use during server
             authentication and to use when attempting to build the client
             certificate chain.

     -CApath directory
             The directory to use for server certificate verification.  This
             directory must be in "hash format"; see -verify for more
             information.  These are also used when building the client
             certificate chain.

     -cert file
             The certificate to use, if one is requested by the server.  The
             default is not to use a certificate.

     -check_ss_sig, -crl_check, -crl_check_all, -extended_crl,
             -ignore_critical, -issuer_checks, -policy_check, -x509_strict
             Set various certificate chain validation options.  See the verify
             command for details.

     -cipher cipherlist
             Modify the cipher list sent by the client.  Although the server
             determines which cipher suite is used, it should take the first
             supported cipher in the list sent by the client.  See the ciphers
             command for more information.

     -connect host[:port]
             The host and port to connect to.  If not specified, an attempt is
             made to connect to the local host on port 4433.  Alternatively,
             the host and port pair may be separated using a forward-slash
             character, which is useful for numeric IPv6 addresses.

     -crlf   Translate a line feed from the terminal into CR+LF, as required
             by some servers.

     -debug  Print extensive debugging information, including a hex dump of
             all traffic.

     -ign_eof
             Inhibit shutting down the connection when end of file is reached
             in the input.

     -key keyfile
             The private key to use.  If not specified, the certificate file
             will be used.

     -msg    Show all protocol messages with hex dump.

     -nbio   Turn on non-blocking I/O.

     -nbio_test
             Test non-blocking I/O.

     -no_tls1 | -no_tls1_1 | -no_tls1_2
             Disable the use of TLS1.0, 1.1, and 1.2, respectively.

     -no_ticket
             Disable RFC 4507 session ticket support.

     -pause  Pause 1 second between each read and write call.

     -prexit
             Print session information when the program exits.  This will
             always attempt to print out information even if the connection
             fails.  Normally, information will only be printed out once if
             the connection succeeds.  This option is useful because the
             cipher in use may be renegotiated or the connection may fail
             because a client certificate is required or is requested only
             after an attempt is made to access a certain URL.  Note that the
             output produced by this option is not always accurate because a
             connection might never have been established.

     -proxy host:port
             Use the HTTP proxy at host and port.  The connection to the proxy
             is done in cleartext and the -connect argument is given to the
             proxy.  If not specified, localhost is used as final destination.
             After that, switch the connection through the proxy to the
             destination to TLS.

     -psk key
             Use the PSK key key when using a PSK cipher suite.  The key is
             given as a hexadecimal number without the leading 0x, for example
             -psk 1a2b3c4d.

     -psk_identity identity
             Use the PSK identity when using a PSK cipher suite.

     -quiet  Inhibit printing of session and certificate information.  This
             implicitly turns on -ign_eof as well.

     -reconnect
             Reconnect to the same server 5 times using the same session ID;
             this can be used as a test that session caching is working.

     -servername name
             Include the TLS Server Name Indication (SNI) extension in the
             ClientHello message, using the specified server name.

     -showcerts
             Display the whole server certificate chain: normally only the
             server certificate itself is displayed.

     -starttls protocol
             Send the protocol-specific messages to switch to TLS for
             communication.  protocol is a keyword for the intended protocol.
             Currently, the supported keywords are "ftp", "imap", "smtp",
             "pop3", and "xmpp".

     -state  Print the SSL session states.

     -tls1 | -tls1_1 | -tls1_2
             Permit only TLS1.0, 1.1, or 1.2, respectively.

     -tlsextdebug
             Print a hex dump of any TLS extensions received from the server.

     -verify depth
             Turn on server certificate verification, with a maximum length of
             depth.  Currently the verify operation continues after errors so
             all the problems with a certificate chain can be seen.  As a side
             effect the connection will never fail due to a server certificate
             verify failure.

     -xmpphost hostname
             When used with -starttls xmpp, specify the host for the "to"
             attribute of the stream element.  If this option is not specified
             then the host specified with -connect will be used.


S_SERVER

     openssl s_server [-accept port] [-bugs] [-CAfile file]
                      [-CApath directory] [-cert file] [-cipher cipherlist]
                      [-context id] [-crl_check] [-crl_check_all] [-crlf]
                      [-dcert file] [-debug] [-dhparam file] [-dkey file]
                      [-hack] [-HTTP] [-id_prefix arg] [-key keyfile] [-msg]
                      [-nbio] [-nbio_test] [-no_dhe] [-no_tls1] [-no_tls1_1]
                      [-no_tls1_2] [-no_tmp_rsa] [-nocert] [-psk key]
                      [-psk_hint hint] [-quiet] [-serverpref] [-state] [-tls1]
                      [-tls1_1] [-tls1_2] [-Verify depth] [-verify depth]
                      [-WWW] [-www]

     The s_server command implements a generic SSL/TLS server which listens
     for connections on a given port using SSL/TLS.

     If a connection request is established with a client and neither the -www
     nor the -WWW option has been used, then any data received from the client
     is displayed and any key presses are sent to the client.  Certain single
     letter commands perform special operations:

     P     Send plain text, which should cause the client to disconnect.
     Q     End the current SSL connection and exit.
     q     End the current SSL connection, but still accept new connections.
     R     Renegotiate the SSL session and request a client certificate.
     r     Renegotiate the SSL session.
     S     Print out some session cache status information.

     The options are as follows:

     -accept port
             Listen on TCP port for connections.  The default is port 4433.

     -bugs   Enable various workarounds for buggy implementations.

     -CAfile file
             A file containing trusted certificates to use during client
             authentication and to use when attempting to build the server
             certificate chain.  The list is also used in the list of
             acceptable client CAs passed to the client when a certificate is
             requested.

     -CApath directory
             The directory to use for client certificate verification.  This
             directory must be in "hash format"; see -verify for more
             information.  These are also used when building the server
             certificate chain.

     -cert file
             The certificate to use: most server's cipher suites require the
             use of a certificate and some require a certificate with a
             certain public key type.  For example, the DSS cipher suites
             require a certificate containing a DSS (DSA) key.  If not
             specified, the file server.pem will be used.

     -cipher cipherlist
             Modify the cipher list used by the server.  This allows the
             cipher list used by the server to be modified.  When the client
             sends a list of supported ciphers, the first client cipher also
             included in the server list is used.  Because the client
             specifies the preference order, the order of the server
             cipherlist is irrelevant.  See the ciphers command for more
             information.

     -context id
             Set the SSL context ID.  It can be given any string value.

     -crl_check, -crl_check_all
             Check the peer certificate has not been revoked by its CA.  The
             CRLs are appended to the certificate file.  -crl_check_all checks
             all CRLs of all CAs in the chain.

     -crlf   Translate a line feed from the terminal into CR+LF.

     -dcert file, -dkey file
             Specify an additional certificate and private key; these behave
             in the same manner as the -cert and -key options except there is
             no default if they are not specified (no additional certificate
             or key is used).  By using RSA and DSS certificates and keys, a
             server can support clients which only support RSA or DSS cipher
             suites by using an appropriate certificate.

     -debug  Print extensive debugging information, including a hex dump of
             all traffic.

     -dhparam file
             The DH parameter file to use.  The ephemeral DH cipher suites
             generate keys using a set of DH parameters.  If not specified, an
             attempt is made to load the parameters from the server
             certificate file.  If this fails, a static set of parameters hard
             coded into the s_server program will be used.

     -hack   Enables a further workaround for some early Netscape SSL code.

     -HTTP   Emulate a simple web server.  Pages are resolved relative to the
             current directory.  For example if the URL
             https://myhost/page.html is requested, the file ./page.html will
             be loaded.  The files loaded are assumed to contain a complete
             and correct HTTP response (lines that are part of the HTTP
             response line and headers must end with CRLF).

     -id_prefix arg
             Generate SSL/TLS session IDs prefixed by arg.  This is mostly
             useful for testing any SSL/TLS code that wish to deal with
             multiple servers, when each of which might be generating a unique
             range of session IDs.

     -key keyfile
             The private key to use.  If not specified, the certificate file
             will be used.

     -msg    Show all protocol messages with hex dump.

     -nbio   Turn on non-blocking I/O.

     -nbio_test
             Test non-blocking I/O.

     -no_dhe
             Disable ephemeral DH cipher suites.

     -no_tls1 | -no_tls1_1 | -no_tls1_2
             Disable the use of TLS1.0, 1.1, and 1.2, respectively.

     -no_tmp_rsa
             Disable temporary RSA key generation.

     -nocert
             Do not use a certificate.  This restricts the cipher suites
             available to the anonymous ones (currently just anonymous DH).

     -psk key
             Use the PSK key key when using a PSK cipher suite.  The key is
             given as a hexadecimal number without the leading 0x, for example
             -psk 1a2b3c4d.

     -psk_hint hint
             Use the PSK identity hint hint when using a PSK cipher suite.

     -quiet  Inhibit printing of session and certificate information.

     -serverpref
             Use server's cipher preferences.

     -state  Print the SSL session states.

     -tls1 | -tls1_1 | -tls1_2
             Permit only TLS1.0, 1.1, or 1.2, respectively.

     -WWW    Emulate a simple web server.  Pages are resolved relative to the
             current directory.  For example if the URL
             https://myhost/page.html is requested, the file ./page.html will
             be loaded.

     -www    Send a status message to the client when it connects, including
             information about the ciphers used and various session
             parameters.  The output is in HTML format so this option will
             normally be used with a web browser.

     -Verify depth, -verify depth
             Request a certificate chain from the client, with a maximum
             length of depth.  With -Verify, the client must supply a
             certificate or an error occurs; with -verify, a certificate is
             requested but the client does not have to send one.


S_TIME

     openssl s_time [-bugs] [-CAfile file] [-CApath directory] [-cert file]
                    [-cipher cipherlist] [-connect host[:port]] [-key keyfile]
                    [-nbio] [-new] [-no_shutdown] [-reuse] [-time seconds]
                    [-verify depth] [-www page]

     The s_time command implements a generic SSL/TLS client which connects to
     a remote host using SSL/TLS.  It can request a page from the server and
     includes the time to transfer the payload data in its timing
     measurements.  It measures the number of connections within a given
     timeframe, the amount of data transferred (if any), and calculates the
     average time spent for one connection.

     The options are as follows:

     -bugs   Enable various workarounds for buggy implementations.

     -CAfile file
             A file containing trusted certificates to use during server
             authentication and to use when attempting to build the client
             certificate chain.

     -CApath directory
             The directory to use for server certificate verification.  This
             directory must be in "hash format"; see verify for more
             information.  These are also used when building the client
             certificate chain.

     -cert file
             The certificate to use, if one is requested by the server.  The
             default is not to use a certificate.

     -cipher cipherlist
             Modify the cipher list sent by the client.  Although the server
             determines which cipher suite is used, it should take the first
             supported cipher in the list sent by the client.  See the ciphers
             command for more information.

     -connect host[:port]
             The host and port to connect to.

     -key keyfile
             The private key to use.  If not specified, the certificate file
             will be used.

     -nbio   Turn on non-blocking I/O.

     -new    Perform the timing test using a new session ID for each
             connection.  If neither -new nor -reuse are specified, they are
             both on by default and executed in sequence.

     -no_shutdown
             Shut down the connection without sending a "close notify"
             shutdown alert to the server.

     -reuse  Perform the timing test using the same session ID for each
             connection.  If neither -new nor -reuse are specified, they are
             both on by default and executed in sequence.

     -time seconds
             Limit s_time benchmarks to the number of seconds.  The default is
             30 seconds.

     -verify depth
             Turn on server certificate verification, with a maximum length of
             depth.  Currently the verify operation continues after errors, so
             all the problems with a certificate chain can be seen.  As a side
             effect, the connection will never fail due to a server
             certificate verify failure.

     -www page
             The page to GET from the server.  A value of `/' gets the
             index.htm[l] page.  If this parameter is not specified, s_time
             will only perform the handshake to establish SSL connections but
             not transfer any payload data.


SESS_ID

     openssl sess_id [-cert] [-context ID] [-in file] [-inform der | pem]
                     [-noout] [-out file] [-outform der | pem] [-text]

     The sess_id program processes the encoded version of the SSL session
     structure and optionally prints out SSL session details (for example the
     SSL session master key) in human-readable format.

     The options are as follows:

     -cert   If a certificate is present in the session, it will be output
             using this option; if the -text option is also present, then it
             will be printed out in text form.

     -context ID
             Set the session ID.  The ID can be any string of characters.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -inform der | pem
             The input format.  der uses an ASN.1 DER-encoded format
             containing session details.  The precise format can vary from one
             version to the next.  pem is the default format: it consists of
             the DER format base64-encoded with additional header and footer
             lines.

     -noout  Do not output the encoded version of the session.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -outform der | pem
             The output format.

     -text   Print the various public or private key components in plain text,
             in addition to the encoded version.

     The output of sess_id is composed as follows:

        Protocol             The protocol in use.
        Cipher               The actual raw SSL or TLS cipher code.
        Session-ID           The SSL session ID, in hex format.
        Session-ID-ctx       The session ID context, in hex format.
        Master-Key           The SSL session master key.
        Key-Arg              The key argument; this is only used in SSL v2.
        Start Time           The session start time.  UNIX format.
        Timeout              The timeout, in seconds.
        Verify return code   The return code when a certificate is verified.

     Since the SSL session output contains the master key, it is possible to
     read the contents of an encrypted session using this information.
     Therefore appropriate security precautions should be taken if the
     information is being output by a "real" application.  This is, however,
     strongly discouraged and should only be used for debugging purposes.


SMIME

     openssl smime [-aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des |
                   -des3 | -rc2-40 | -rc2-64 | -rc2-128] [-binary]
                   [-CAfile file] [-CApath directory] [-certfile file]
                   [-check_ss_sig] [-content file] [-crl_check]
                   [-crl_check_all] [-decrypt] [-encrypt] [-extended_crl]
                   [-from addr] [-ignore_critical] [-in file] [-indef]
                   [-inform der | pem | smime] [-inkey file] [-issuer_checks]
                   [-keyform pem] [-md digest] [-noattr] [-nocerts] [-nochain]
                   [-nodetach] [-noindef] [-nointern] [-nosigs] [-noverify]
                   [-out file] [-outform der | pem | smime] [-passin arg]
                   [-pk7out] [-policy_check] [-recip file] [-resign] [-sign]
                   [-signer file] [-stream] [-subject s] [-text] [-to addr]
                   [-verify] [-x509_strict] [cert.pem ...]

     The smime command handles S/MIME mail.  It can encrypt, decrypt, sign,
     and verify S/MIME messages.

     The MIME message must be sent without any blank lines between the headers
     and the output.  Some mail programs will automatically add a blank line.
     Piping the mail directly to an MTA is one way to achieve the correct
     format.

     The supplied message to be signed or encrypted must include the necessary
     MIME headers or many S/MIME clients won't display it properly (if at
     all).  Use the -text option to automatically add plain text headers.

     A "signed and encrypted" message is one where a signed message is then
     encrypted.  This can be produced by encrypting an already signed message.

     There are a number of operations that can be performed, as follows:

     -decrypt
           Decrypt mail using the supplied certificate and private key.  The
           input file is an encrypted mail message in MIME format.  The
           decrypted mail is written to the output file.

     -encrypt
           Encrypt mail for the given recipient certificates.  The input is
           the message to be encrypted.  The output file is the encrypted
           mail, in MIME format.

     -pk7out
           Take an input message and write out a PEM-encoded PKCS#7 structure.

     -resign
           Resign a message: take an existing message and one or more new
           signers.

     -sign
           Sign mail using the supplied certificate and private key.  The
           input file is the message to be signed.  The signed message, in
           MIME format, is written to the output file.

     -verify
           Verify signed mail.  The input is a signed mail message and the
           output is the signed data.  Both clear text and opaque signing is
           supported.

     The remaining options are as follows:

     -aes128 | -aes192 | -aes256 | -des | -des3 | -rc2-40 | -rc2-64 | -rc2-128
           The encryption algorithm to use.  128-, 192-, or 256-bit AES, DES
           (56 bits), triple DES (168 bits), or 40-, 64-, or 128-bit RC2,
           respectively; if not specified, 40-bit RC2 is used.  Only used with
           -encrypt.

     -binary
           Normally, the input message is converted to "canonical" format
           which uses CR/LF as end of line, as required by the S/MIME
           specification.  When this option is present no translation occurs.
           This is useful when handling binary data which may not be in MIME
           format.

     -CAfile file
           A file containing trusted CA certificates; only used with -verify.

     -CApath directory
           A directory containing trusted CA certificates; only used with
           -verify.  This directory must be a standard certificate directory:
           that is, a hash of each subject name (using x509 -hash) should be
           linked to each certificate.

     cert.pem ...
           One or more certificates of message recipients: used when
           encrypting a message.

     -certfile file
           Allows additional certificates to be specified.  When signing,
           these will be included with the message.  When verifying, these
           will be searched for the signers' certificates.  The certificates
           should be in PEM format.

     -check_ss_sig, -crl_check, -crl_check_all, -extended_crl,
           -ignore_critical, -issuer_checks, -policy_check, -x509_strict
           Set various certificate chain validation options.  See the verify
           command for details.

     -content file
           A file containing the detached content.  This is only useful with
           the -verify option, and only usable if the PKCS#7 structure is
           using the detached signature form where the content is not
           included.  This option will override any content if the input
           format is S/MIME and it uses the multipart/signed MIME content
           type.

     -from addr, -subject s, -to addr
           The relevant mail headers.  These are included outside the signed
           portion of a message so they may be included manually.  When
           signing, many S/MIME mail clients check that the signer's
           certificate email address matches the From: address.

     -in file
           The input file to read from.

     -indef
           Enable streaming I/O for encoding operations.  This permits single
           pass processing of data without the need to hold the entire
           contents in memory, potentially supporting very large files.
           Streaming is automatically set for S/MIME signing with detached
           data if the output format is SMIME; it is currently off by default
           for all other operations.

     -inform der | pem | smime
           The input format.

     -inkey file
           The private key to use when signing or decrypting, which must match
           the corresponding certificate.  If this option is not specified,
           the private key must be included in the certificate file specified
           with the -recip or -signer file.  When signing, this option can be
           used multiple times to specify successive keys.

     -keyform pem
           Input private key format.

     -md digest
           The digest algorithm to use when signing or resigning.  If not
           present then the default digest algorithm for the signing key is
           used (usually SHA1).

     -noattr
           Do not include attributes.

     -nocerts
           Do not include the signer's certificate.  This will reduce the size
           of the signed message but the verifier must have a copy of the
           signer's certificate available locally (passed using the -certfile
           option, for example).

     -nochain
           Do not do chain verification of signers' certificates: that is,
           don't use the certificates in the signed message as untrusted CAs.

     -nodetach
           When signing a message use opaque signing: this form is more
           resistant to translation by mail relays but it cannot be read by
           mail agents that do not support S/MIME.  Without this option
           cleartext signing with the MIME type multipart/signed is used.

     -noindef
           Disable streaming I/O where it would produce an encoding of
           indefinite length (currently has no effect).

     -nointern
           Only use certificates specified in the -certfile.  The supplied
           certificates can still be used as untrusted CAs.

     -nosigs
           Do not try to verify the signatures on the message.

     -noverify
           Do not verify the signer's certificate of a signed message.

     -out file
           The output file to write to.

     -outform der | pem | smime
           The output format.  The default is smime, which writes an S/MIME
           format message.  pem and der change this to write PEM and DER
           format PKCS#7 structures instead.  This currently only affects the
           output format of the PKCS#7 structure; if no PKCS#7 structure is
           being output (for example with -verify or -decrypt) this option has
           no effect.

     -passin arg
           The key password source.

     -recip file
           The recipients certificate when decrypting a message.  This
           certificate must match one of the recipients of the message or an
           error occurs.

     -signer file
           A signing certificate when signing or resigning a message; this
           option can be used multiple times if more than one signer is
           required.  If a message is being verified, the signer's
           certificates will be written to this file if the verification was
           successful.

     -stream
           The same as -indef.

     -text
           Add plain text (text/plain) MIME headers to the supplied message if
           encrypting or signing.  If decrypting or verifying, it strips off
           text headers: if the decrypted or verified message is not of MIME
           type text/plain then an error occurs.

     The exit codes for smime are as follows:

        0     The operation was completely successful.
        1     An error occurred parsing the command options.
        2     One of the input files could not be read.
        3     An error occurred creating the file or when reading the message.
        4     An error occurred decrypting or verifying the message.
        5     An error occurred writing certificates.


SPEED

     openssl speed [algorithm] [-decrypt] [-elapsed] [-evp algorithm] [-mr]
                   [-multi number]

     The speed command is used to test the performance of cryptographic
     algorithms.

     algorithm
           Perform the test using algorithm.  The default is to test all
           algorithms.

     -decrypt
           Time decryption instead of encryption; must be used with -evp.

     -elapsed
           Measure time in real time instead of CPU user time.

     -evp algorithm
           Perform the test using one of the algorithms accepted by
           EVP_get_cipherbyname(3).

     -mr   Produce machine readable output.

     -multi number
           Run number benchmarks in parallel.


SPKAC

     openssl spkac [-challenge string] [-in file] [-key keyfile] [-noout]
                   [-out file] [-passin arg] [-pubkey] [-spkac spkacname]
                   [-spksect section] [-verify]

     The spkac command processes signed public key and challenge (SPKAC)
     files.  It can print out their contents, verify the signature, and
     produce its own SPKACs from a supplied private key.

     The options are as follows:

     -challenge string
             The challenge string, if an SPKAC is being created.

     -in file
             The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.
             Ignored if the -key option is used.

     -key keyfile
             Create an SPKAC file using the private key in keyfile.  The -in,
             -noout, -spksect, and -verify options are ignored, if present.

     -noout  Do not output the text version of the SPKAC.

     -out file
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -passin arg
             The key password source.

     -pubkey
             Output the public key of an SPKAC.

     -spkac spkacname
             An alternative name for the variable containing the SPKAC.  The
             default is "SPKAC".  This option affects both generated and input
             SPKAC files.

     -spksect section
             An alternative name for the section containing the SPKAC.

     -verify
             Verify the digital signature on the supplied SPKAC.


TS

     openssl ts -query [-md4 | -md5 | -ripemd160 | -sha1] [-cert]
                [-config configfile] [-data file_to_hash]
                [-digest digest_bytes] [-in request.tsq] [-no_nonce]
                [-out request.tsq] [-policy object_id] [-text]

     openssl ts -reply [-chain certs_file.pem] [-config configfile]
                [-in response.tsr] [-inkey private.pem] [-out response.tsr]
                [-passin arg] [-policy object_id] [-queryfile request.tsq]
                [-section tsa_section] [-signer tsa_cert.pem] [-text]
                [-token_in] [-token_out]

     openssl ts -verify [-CAfile trusted_certs.pem]
                [-CApath trusted_cert_path] [-data file_to_hash]
                [-digest digest_bytes] [-in response.tsr]
                [-queryfile request.tsq] [-token_in]
                [-untrusted cert_file.pem]

     The ts command is a basic Time Stamping Authority (TSA) client and server
     application as specified in RFC 3161 (Time-Stamp Protocol, TSP).  A TSA
     can be part of a PKI deployment and its role is to provide long term
     proof of the existence of specific data.  Here is a brief description of
     the protocol:

     1.   The TSA client computes a one-way hash value for a data file and
          sends the hash to the TSA.

     2.   The TSA attaches the current date and time to the received hash
          value, signs them and sends the time stamp token back to the client.
          By creating this token the TSA certifies the existence of the
          original data file at the time of response generation.

     3.   The TSA client receives the time stamp token and verifies the
          signature on it.  It also checks if the token contains the same hash
          value that it had sent to the TSA.

     There is one DER-encoded protocol data unit defined for transporting a
     time stamp request to the TSA and one for sending the time stamp response
     back to the client.  The ts command has three main functions: creating a
     time stamp request based on a data file; creating a time stamp response
     based on a request; and verifying if a response corresponds to a
     particular request or a data file.

     There is no support for sending the requests/responses automatically over
     HTTP or TCP yet as suggested in RFC 3161.  Users must send the requests
     either by FTP or email.

     The -query switch can be used for creating and printing a time stamp
     request with the following options:

     -cert   Expect the TSA to include its signing certificate in the
             response.

     -config configfile
             Specify an alternative configuration file.  Only the OID section
             is used.

     -data file_to_hash
             The data file for which the time stamp request needs to be
             created.  The default is standard input.

     -digest digest_bytes
             Specify the message imprint explicitly without the data file.
             The imprint must be specified in a hexadecimal format, two
             characters per byte, the bytes optionally separated by colons.
             The number of bytes must match the message digest algorithm in
             use.

     -in request.tsq
             A previously created time stamp request in DER format that will
             be printed into the output file.  Useful for examining the
             content of a request in human-readable format.

     -md4 | -md5 | -ripemd160 | -sha | -sha1
             The message digest to apply to the data file.  It supports all
             the message digest algorithms that are supported by the dgst
             command.  The default is SHA-1.

     -no_nonce
             Specify no nonce in the request.  The default, to include a
             64-bit long pseudo-random nonce, is recommended to protect
             against replay attacks.

     -out request.tsq
             The output file to write to, or standard output if not specified.

     -policy object_id
             The policy that the client expects the TSA to use for creating
             the time stamp token.  Either dotted OID notation or OID names
             defined in the config file can be used.  If no policy is
             requested the TSA uses its own default policy.

     -text   Output in human-readable text format instead of DER.

     A time stamp response (TimeStampResp) consists of a response status and
     the time stamp token itself (ContentInfo), if the token generation was
     successful.  The -reply command is for creating a time stamp response or
     time stamp token based on a request and printing the response/token in
     human-readable format.  If -token_out is not specified the output is
     always a time stamp response (TimeStampResp), otherwise it is a time
     stamp token (ContentInfo).

     -chain certs_file.pem
             The collection of PEM certificates that will be included in the
             response in addition to the signer certificate if the -cert
             option was used for the request.  This file is supposed to
             contain the certificate chain for the signer certificate from its
             issuer upwards.  The -reply command does not build a certificate
             chain automatically.

     -config configfile
             Specify an alternative configuration file.

     -in response.tsr
             Specify a previously created time stamp response (or time stamp
             token, if -token_in is also specified) in DER format that will be
             written to the output file.  This option does not require a
             request; it is useful, for example, to examine the content of a
             response or token or to extract the time stamp token from a
             response.  If the input is a token and the output is a time stamp
             response a default "granted" status info is added to the token.

     -inkey private.pem
             The signer private key of the TSA in PEM format.  Overrides the
             signer_key config file option.

     -out response.tsr
             The response is written to this file.  The format and content of
             the file depends on other options (see -text and -token_out).
             The default is stdout.

     -passin arg
             The key password source.

     -policy object_id
             The default policy to use for the response.  Either dotted OID
             notation or OID names defined in the config file can be used.  If
             no policy is requested the TSA uses its own default policy.

     -queryfile request.tsq
             The file containing a DER-encoded time stamp request.

     -section tsa_section
             The config file section containing the settings for response
             generation.

     -signer tsa_cert.pem
             The PEM signer certificate of the TSA.  The TSA signing
             certificate must have exactly one extended key usage assigned to
             it: timeStamping.  The extended key usage must also be critical,
             otherwise the certificate is going to be refused.  Overrides the
             signer_cert variable of the config file.

     -text   Output in human-readable text format instead of DER.

     -token_in
             The input is a DER-encoded time stamp token (ContentInfo) instead
             of a time stamp response (TimeStampResp).

     -token_out
             The output is a time stamp token (ContentInfo) instead of a time
             stamp response (TimeStampResp).

     The -verify command is for verifying if a time stamp response or time
     stamp token is valid and matches a particular time stamp request or data
     file.  The -verify command does not use the configuration file.

     -CAfile trusted_certs.pem
             The file containing a set of trusted self-signed PEM CA
             certificates.  See verify for additional details.  Either this
             option or -CApath must be specified.

     -CApath trusted_cert_path
             The directory containing the trused CA certificates of the
             client.  See verify for additional details.  Either this option
             or -CAfile must be specified.

     -data file_to_hash
             The response or token must be verified against file_to_hash.  The
             file is hashed with the message digest algorithm specified in the
             token.  The -digest and -queryfile options must not be specified
             with this one.

     -digest digest_bytes
             The response or token must be verified against the message digest
             specified with this option.  The number of bytes must match the
             message digest algorithm specified in the token.  The -data and
             -queryfile options must not be specified with this one.

     -in response.tsr
             The time stamp response that needs to be verified, in DER format.
             This option in mandatory.

     -queryfile request.tsq
             The original time stamp request, in DER format.  The -data and
             -digest options must not be specified with this one.

     -token_in
             The input is a DER-encoded time stamp token (ContentInfo) instead
             of a time stamp response (TimeStampResp).

     -untrusted cert_file.pem
             Additional untrusted PEM certificates which may be needed when
             building the certificate chain for the TSA's signing certificate.
             This file must contain the TSA signing certificate and all
             intermediate CA certificates unless the response includes them.

     Options specified on the command line always override the settings in the
     config file:

     tsa section, default_tsa
             This is the main section and it specifies the name of another
             section that contains all the options for the -reply option.
             This section can be overridden with the -section command line
             switch.

     oid_file
             See ca for a description.

     oid_section
             See ca for a description.

     serial  The file containing the hexadecimal serial number of the last
             time stamp response created.  This number is incremented by 1 for
             each response.  If the file does not exist at the time of
             response generation a new file is created with serial number 1.
             This parameter is mandatory.

     signer_cert
             TSA signing certificate, in PEM format.  The same as the -signer
             command line option.

     certs   A set of PEM-encoded certificates that need to be included in the
             response.  The same as the -chain command line option.

     signer_key
             The private key of the TSA, in PEM format.  The same as the
             -inkey command line option.

     default_policy
             The default policy to use when the request does not mandate any
             policy.  The same as the -policy command line option.

     other_policies
             Comma separated list of policies that are also acceptable by the
             TSA and used only if the request explicitly specifies one of
             them.

     digests
             The list of message digest algorithms that the TSA accepts.  At
             least one algorithm must be specified.  This parameter is
             mandatory.

     accuracy
             The accuracy of the time source of the TSA in seconds,
             milliseconds and microseconds.  For example, secs:1,
             millisecs:500, microsecs:100.  If any of the components is
             missing, zero is assumed for that field.

     clock_precision_digits
             The maximum number of digits, which represent the fraction of
             seconds, that need to be included in the time field.  The
             trailing zeroes must be removed from the time, so there might
             actually be fewer digits or no fraction of seconds at all.  The
             maximum value is 6; the default is 0.

     ordering
             If this option is yes, the responses generated by this TSA can
             always be ordered, even if the time difference between two
             responses is less than the sum of their accuracies.  The default
             is no.

     tsa_name
             Set this option to yes if the subject name of the TSA must be
             included in the TSA name field of the response.  The default is
             no.

     ess_cert_id_chain
             The SignedData objects created by the TSA always contain the
             certificate identifier of the signing certificate in a signed
             attribute (see RFC 2634, Enhanced Security Services).  If this
             option is set to yes and either the certs variable or the -chain
             option is specified then the certificate identifiers of the chain
             will also be included in the SigningCertificate signed attribute.
             If this variable is set to no, only the signing certificate
             identifier is included.  The default is no.


VERIFY

     openssl verify [-CAfile file] [-CApath directory] [-check_ss_sig]
                    [-crl_check] [-crl_check_all] [-explicit_policy]
                    [-extended_crl] [-help] [-ignore_critical] [-inhibit_any]
                    [-inhibit_map] [-issuer_checks] [-policy_check]
                    [-purpose purpose] [-untrusted file] [-verbose]
                    [-x509_strict] [certificates]

     The verify command verifies certificate chains.

     The options are as follows:

     -check_ss_sig
             Verify the signature on the self-signed root CA.  This is
             disabled by default because it doesn't add any security.

     -CAfile file
             A file of trusted certificates.  The file should contain multiple
             certificates in PEM format, concatenated together.

     -CApath directory
             A directory of trusted certificates.  The certificates, or
             symbolic links to them, should have names of the form hash.0,
             where hash is the hashed certificate subject name (see the -hash
             option of the x509 utility).

     -crl_check
             Check end entity certificate validity by attempting to look up a
             valid CRL.  If a valid CRL cannot be found an error occurs.

     -crl_check_all
             Check the validity of all certificates in the chain by attempting
             to look up valid CRLs.

     -explicit_policy
             Set policy variable require-explicit-policy (RFC 3280).

     -extended_crl
             Enable extended CRL features such as indirect CRLs and alternate
             CRL signing keys.

     -help   Print a usage message.

     -ignore_critical
             Ignore critical extensions instead of rejecting the certificate.

     -inhibit_any
             Set policy variable inhibit-any-policy (RFC 3280).

     -inhibit_map
             Set policy variable inhibit-policy-mapping (RFC 3280).

     -issuer_checks
             Print diagnostics relating to searches for the issuer certificate
             of the current certificate showing why each candidate issuer
             certificate was rejected.  The presence of rejection messages
             does not itself imply that anything is wrong: during the normal
             verify process several rejections may take place.

     -policy_check
             Enable certificate policy processing.

     -purpose purpose
             The intended use for the certificate.  Without this option no
             chain verification will be done.  Currently accepted uses are
             sslclient, sslserver, nssslserver, smimesign, smimeencrypt,
             crlsign, any, and ocsphelper.

     -untrusted file
             A file of untrusted certificates.  The file should contain
             multiple certificates.

     -verbose
             Print extra information about the operations being performed.

     -x509_strict
             Disable workarounds for broken certificates which have to be
             disabled for strict X.509 compliance.

     certificates
             One or more PEM certificates to verify.  If no certificate files
             are included, an attempt is made to read a certificate from
             standard input.  If the first certificate filename begins with a
             dash, use a lone dash to mark the last option.

     The verify program uses the same functions as the internal SSL and S/MIME
     verification, with one crucial difference: wherever possible an attempt
     is made to continue after an error, whereas normally the verify operation
     would halt on the first error.  This allows all the problems with a
     certificate chain to be determined.

     The verify operation consists of a number of separate steps.  Firstly a
     certificate chain is built up starting from the supplied certificate and
     ending in the root CA.  It is an error if the whole chain cannot be built
     up.  The chain is built up by looking up the issuer's certificate of the
     current certificate.  If a certificate is found which is its own issuer,
     it is assumed to be the root CA.

     All certificates whose subject name matches the issuer name of the
     current certificate are subject to further tests.  The relevant authority
     key identifier components of the current certificate (if present) must
     match the subject key identifier (if present) and issuer and serial
     number of the candidate issuer; in addition the keyUsage extension of the
     candidate issuer (if present) must permit certificate signing.

     The lookup first looks in the list of untrusted certificates and if no
     match is found the remaining lookups are from the trusted certificates.
     The root CA is always looked up in the trusted certificate list: if the
     certificate to verify is a root certificate, then an exact match must be
     found in the trusted list.

     The second operation is to check every untrusted certificate's extensions
     for consistency with the supplied purpose.  If the -purpose option is not
     included, then no checks are done.  The supplied or "leaf" certificate
     must have extensions compatible with the supplied purpose and all other
     certificates must also be valid CA certificates.  The precise extensions
     required are described in more detail in the X509 section below.

     The third operation is to check the trust settings on the root CA.  The
     root CA should be trusted for the supplied purpose.  A certificate with
     no trust settings is considered to be valid for all purposes.

     The final operation is to check the validity of the certificate chain.
     The validity period is checked against the current system time and the
     notBefore and notAfter dates in the certificate.  The certificate
     signatures are also checked at this point.

     If all operations complete successfully, the certificate is considered
     valid.  If any operation fails then the certificate is not valid.  When a
     verify operation fails, the output messages can be somewhat cryptic.  The
     general form of the error message is:

     server.pem: /C=AU/ST=Queensland/O=CryptSoft Pty Ltd/CN=Test CA (1024-bit)
     error 24 at 1 depth lookup:invalid CA certificate

     The first line contains the name of the certificate being verified,
     followed by the subject name of the certificate.  The second line
     contains the error number and the depth.  The depth is the number of the
     certificate being verified when a problem was detected starting with zero
     for the certificate being verified itself, then 1 for the CA that signed
     the certificate and so on.  Finally a text version of the error number is
     presented.

     An exhaustive list of the error codes and messages is shown below; this
     also includes the name of the error code as defined in the header file
     <openssl/x509_vfy.h>.  Some of the error codes are defined but never
     returned: these are described as "unused".

     0 X509_V_OK
           The operation was successful.

     2 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT
           The issuer certificate of an untrusted certificate could not be
           found.

     3 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_CRL
           The CRL of a certificate could not be found.

     4 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CERT_SIGNATURE
           The certificate signature could not be decrypted.  This means that
           the actual signature value could not be determined rather than it
           not matching the expected value.  This is only meaningful for RSA
           keys.

     5 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECRYPT_CRL_SIGNATURE
           The CRL signature could not be decrypted.  This means that the
           actual signature value could not be determined rather than it not
           matching the expected value.  Unused.

     6 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_DECODE_ISSUER_PUBLIC_KEY
           The public key in the certificate SubjectPublicKeyInfo could not be
           read.

     7 X509_V_ERR_CERT_SIGNATURE_FAILURE
           The signature of the certificate is invalid.

     8 X509_V_ERR_CRL_SIGNATURE_FAILURE
           The signature of the certificate is invalid.

     9 X509_V_ERR_CERT_NOT_YET_VALID
           The certificate is not yet valid: the notBefore date is after the
           current time.

     10 X509_V_ERR_CERT_HAS_EXPIRED
           The certificate has expired; that is, the notAfter date is before
           the current time.

     11 X509_V_ERR_CRL_NOT_YET_VALID
           The CRL is not yet valid.

     12 X509_V_ERR_CRL_HAS_EXPIRED
           The CRL has expired.

     13 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_BEFORE_FIELD
           The certificate notBefore field contains an invalid time.

     14 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CERT_NOT_AFTER_FIELD
           The certificate notAfter field contains an invalid time.

     15 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_LAST_UPDATE_FIELD
           The CRL lastUpdate field contains an invalid time.

     16 X509_V_ERR_ERROR_IN_CRL_NEXT_UPDATE_FIELD
           The CRL nextUpdate field contains an invalid time.

     17 X509_V_ERR_OUT_OF_MEM
           An error occurred trying to allocate memory.  This should never
           happen.

     18 X509_V_ERR_DEPTH_ZERO_SELF_SIGNED_CERT
           The passed certificate is self-signed and the same certificate
           cannot be found in the list of trusted certificates.

     19 X509_V_ERR_SELF_SIGNED_CERT_IN_CHAIN
           The certificate chain could be built up using the untrusted
           certificates but the root could not be found locally.

     20 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_GET_ISSUER_CERT_LOCALLY
           The issuer certificate of a locally looked up certificate could not
           be found.  This normally means the list of trusted certificates is
           not complete.

     21 X509_V_ERR_UNABLE_TO_VERIFY_LEAF_SIGNATURE
           No signatures could be verified because the chain contains only one
           certificate and it is not self-signed.

     22 X509_V_ERR_CERT_CHAIN_TOO_LONG
           The certificate chain length is greater than the supplied maximum
           depth.  Unused.

     23 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REVOKED
           The certificate has been revoked.

     24 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_CA
           A CA certificate is invalid.  Either it is not a CA or its
           extensions are not consistent with the supplied purpose.

     25 X509_V_ERR_PATH_LENGTH_EXCEEDED
           The basicConstraints pathlength parameter has been exceeded.

     26 X509_V_ERR_INVALID_PURPOSE
           The supplied certificate cannot be used for the specified purpose.

     27 X509_V_ERR_CERT_UNTRUSTED
           The root CA is not marked as trusted for the specified purpose.

     28 X509_V_ERR_CERT_REJECTED
           The root CA is marked to reject the specified purpose.

     29 X509_V_ERR_SUBJECT_ISSUER_MISMATCH
           The current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
           subject name did not match the issuer name of the current
           certificate.  Only displayed when the -issuer_checks option is set.

     30 X509_V_ERR_AKID_SKID_MISMATCH
           The current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
           subject key identifier was present and did not match the authority
           key identifier current certificate.  Only displayed when the
           -issuer_checks option is set.

     31 X509_V_ERR_AKID_ISSUER_SERIAL_MISMATCH
           The current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
           issuer name and serial number were present and did not match the
           authority key identifier of the current certificate.  Only
           displayed when the -issuer_checks option is set.

     32 X509_V_ERR_KEYUSAGE_NO_CERTSIGN
           The current candidate issuer certificate was rejected because its
           keyUsage extension does not permit certificate signing.

     50 X509_V_ERR_APPLICATION_VERIFICATION
           An application specific error.  Unused.


VERSION

     openssl version [-abdfopv]

     The version command is used to print out version information about
     openssl.

     The options are as follows:

     -a      All information: this is the same as setting all the other flags.

     -b      The date the current version of openssl was built.

     -d      OPENSSLDIR setting.

     -f      Compilation flags.

     -o      Option information: various options set when the library was
             built.

     -p      Platform setting.

     -v      The current openssl version.


X509

     openssl x509 [-C] [-addreject arg] [-addtrust arg] [-alias] [-CA file]
                  [-CAcreateserial] [-CAform der | pem] [-CAkey file]
                  [-CAkeyform der | pem] [-CAserial file] [-certopt option]
                  [-checkend arg] [-clrext] [-clrreject] [-clrtrust] [-dates]
                  [-days arg] [-email] [-enddate] [-extensions section]
                  [-extfile file] [-fingerprint] [-hash] [-in file]
                  [-inform der | net | pem] [-issuer] [-issuer_hash]
                  [-issuer_hash_old] [-keyform der | pem] [-md5 | -sha1]
                  [-modulus] [-nameopt option] [-noout] [-ocsp_uri] [-ocspid]
                  [-out file] [-outform der | net | pem] [-passin arg]
                  [-pubkey] [-purpose] [-req] [-serial] [-set_serial n]
                  [-setalias arg] [-signkey file] [-startdate] [-subject]
                  [-subject_hash] [-subject_hash_old] [-text] [-trustout]
                  [-x509toreq]

     The x509 command is a multi-purpose certificate utility.  It can be used
     to display certificate information, convert certificates to various
     forms, sign certificate requests like a "mini CA", or edit certificate
     trust settings.

     The following are x509 input, output, and general purpose options:

     -in file
           The input file to read from, or standard input if not specified.

     -inform der | net | pem
           The input format.  Normally, the command will expect an X.509
           certificate, but this can change if other options such as -req are
           present.

     -md5 | -sha1
           The digest to use.  This affects any signing or display option that
           uses a message digest, such as the -fingerprint, -signkey, and -CA
           options.  If not specified, MD5 is used.  SHA1 is always used with
           DSA keys.

     -out file
           The output file to write to, or standard output if none is
           specified.

     -outform der | net | pem
           The output format.

     -passin arg
           The key password source.

     The following are x509 display options:

     -C    Output the certificate in the form of a C source file.

     -certopt option
           Customise the output format used with -text, either using a list of
           comma-separated options or by specifying -certopt multiple times.
           The default behaviour is to print all fields.  The options are as
           follows:

                 ca_default     Equivalent to no_issuer, no_pubkey, no_header,
                                no_version, no_sigdump, and no_signame.
                 compatible     Equivalent to no output options at all.
                 ext_default    Print unsupported certificate extensions.
                 ext_dump       Hex dump unsupported extensions.
                 ext_error      Print an error message for unsupported
                                certificate extensions.
                 ext_parse      ASN.1 parse unsupported extensions.
                 no_aux         Do not print certificate trust information.
                 no_extensions  Do not print X509V3 extensions.
                 no_header      Do not print header (Certificate and Data)
                                information.
                 no_issuer      Do not print the issuer name.
                 no_pubkey      Do not print the public key.
                 no_serial      Do not print the serial number.
                 no_sigdump     Do not give a hexadecimal dump of the
                                certificate signature.
                 no_signame     Do not print the signature algorithm used.
                 no_subject     Do not print the subject name.
                 no_validity    Do not print the notBefore and notAfter
                                (validity) fields.
                 no_version     Do not print the version number.

     -dates
           Print the start and expiry date of a certificate.

     -email
           Output the email addresses, if any.

     -enddate
           Print the expiry date of the certificate; that is, the notAfter
           date.

     -fingerprint
           Print the digest of the DER-encoded version of the whole
           certificate.

     -hash
           A synonym for -subject_hash.

     -issuer
           Print the issuer name.

     -issuer_hash
           Print the hash of the certificate issuer name.

     -issuer_hash_old
           Print the hash of the certificate issuer name using the older
           algorithm as used by openssl versions before 1.0.0.

     -modulus
           Print the value of the modulus of the public key contained in the
           certificate.

     -nameopt option
           Customise how the subject or issuer names are displayed, either
           using a list of comma-separated options or by specifying -nameopt
           multiple times.  The default behaviour is to use the oneline
           format.  The options, which can be preceded by a dash to turn them
           off, are as follows:

           align
                 Align field values for a more readable output.  Only usable
                 with sep_multiline.

           compat
                 Use the old format, equivalent to specifying no options at
                 all.

           dn_rev
                 Reverse the fields of the DN, as required by RFC 2253.  As a
                 side effect, this also reverses the order of multiple AVAs.

           dump_all
                 Dump all fields.  When used with dump_der, it allows the DER
                 encoding of the structure to be unambiguously determined.

           dump_der
                 Any fields that need to be hexdumped are dumped using the DER
                 encoding of the field.  Otherwise just the content octets
                 will be displayed.  Both options use the RFC 2253 #XXXX...
                 format.

           dump_nostr
                 Dump non-character string types (for example OCTET STRING);
                 usually, non-character string types are displayed as though
                 each content octet represents a single character.

           dump_unknown
                 Dump any field whose OID is not recognised by openssl.

           esc_2253
                 Escape the "special" characters required by RFC 2253 in a
                 field that is " ,+"<>;".  Additionally, `#' is escaped at the
                 beginning of a string and a space character at the beginning
                 or end of a string.

           esc_ctrl
                 Escape control characters.  That is, those with ASCII values
                 less than 0x20 (space) and the delete (0x7f) character.  They
                 are escaped using the RFC 2253 \XX notation (where XX are two
                 hex digits representing the character value).

           esc_msb
                 Escape characters with the MSB set; that is, with ASCII
                 values larger than 127.

           multiline
                 A multiline format.  Equivalent to esc_ctrl, esc_msb,
                 sep_multiline, space_eq, lname, and align.

           no_type
                 Do not attempt to interpret multibyte characters.  That is,
                 content octets are merely dumped as though one octet
                 represents each character.  This is useful for diagnostic
                 purposes but results in rather odd looking output.

           nofname, sname, lname, oid
                 Alter how the field name is displayed: nofname does not
                 display the field at all; sname uses the short name form (CN
                 for commonName, for example); lname uses the long form.  oid
                 represents the OID in numerical form and is useful for
                 diagnostic purpose.

           oneline
                 A one line format which is more readable than RFC2253.
                 Equivalent to esc_2253, esc_ctrl, esc_msb, utf8, dump_nostr,
                 dump_der, use_quote, sep_comma_plus_spc, space_eq, and sname.

           RFC2253
                 Displays names compatible with RFC 2253.  Equivalent to
                 esc_2253, esc_ctrl, esc_msb, utf8, dump_nostr, dump_unknown,
                 dump_der, sep_comma_plus, dn_rev, and sname.

           sep_comma_plus, sep_comma_plus_space, sep_semi_plus_space,
                 sep_multiline
                 Determine the field separators: the first character is
                 between RDNs and the second between multiple AVAs (multiple
                 AVAs are very rare and their use is discouraged).  The
                 options ending in "space" additionally place a space after
                 the separator to make it more readable.  sep_multiline uses a
                 linefeed character for the RDN separator and a spaced `+' for
                 the AVA separator, as well as indenting the fields by four
                 characters.

           show_type
                 Show the type of the ASN.1 character string.  The type
                 precedes the field contents.  For example "BMPSTRING: Hello
                 World".

           space_eq
                 Place spaces round the `=' character which follows the field
                 name.

           use_quote
                 Escape some characters by surrounding the whole string with
                 `"' characters.  Without the option, all escaping is done
                 with the `\' character.

           utf8  Convert all strings to UTF8 format first, as required by RFC
                 2253.  On a UTF8 compatible terminal, the use of this option
                 (and not setting esc_msb) may result in the correct display
                 of multibyte characters.  Usually, multibyte characters
                 larger than 0xff are represented using the format \UXXXX for
                 16 bits and \WXXXXXXXX for 32 bits, and any UTF8Strings are
                 converted to their character form first.

     -noout
           Do not output the encoded version of the request.

     -ocsp_uri
           Print the OCSP responder addresses, if any.

     -ocspid
           Print OCSP hash values for the subject name and public key.

     -pubkey
           Print the public key.

     -serial
           Print the certificate serial number.

     -startdate
           Print the start date of the certificate; that is, the notBefore
           date.

     -subject
           Print the subject name.

     -subject_hash
           Print the hash of the certificate subject name.  This is used in
           openssl to form an index to allow certificates in a directory to be
           looked up by subject name.

     -subject_hash_old
           Print the hash of the certificate subject name using the older
           algorithm as used by openssl versions before 1.0.0.

     -text
           Print the full certificate in text form.

     A trusted certificate is a certificate which has several additional
     pieces of information attached to it such as the permitted and prohibited
     uses of the certificate and an alias.  When a certificate is being
     verified at least one certificate must be trusted.  By default, a trusted
     certificate must be stored locally and be a root CA.  The following are
     x509 trust settings options:

     -addreject arg
           Add a prohibited use.  Accepts the same values as the -addtrust
           option.

     -addtrust arg
           Add a trusted certificate use.  Any object name can be used here,
           but currently only clientAuth (SSL client use), serverAuth (SSL
           server use), and emailProtection (S/MIME email) are used.

     -alias
           Output the certificate alias.

     -clrreject
           Clear all the prohibited or rejected uses of the certificate.

     -clrtrust
           Clear all the permitted or trusted uses of the certificate.

     -purpose
           Perform tests on the certificate extensions.  The same code is used
           when verifying untrusted certificates in chains, so this section is
           useful if a chain is rejected by the verify code.

           The basicConstraints extension CA flag is used to determine whether
           the certificate can be used as a CA.  If the CA flag is true, it is
           a CA; if the CA flag is false, it is not a CA.  All CAs should have
           the CA flag set to true.

           If the basicConstraints extension is absent, then the certificate
           is considered to be a possible CA; other extensions are checked
           according to the intended use of the certificate.  A warning is
           given in this case because the certificate should really not be
           regarded as a CA.  However it is allowed to be a CA to work around
           some broken software.

           If the certificate is a V1 certificate (and thus has no extensions)
           and it is self-signed, it is also assumed to be a CA but a warning
           is again given.  This is to work around the problem of Verisign
           roots which are V1 self-signed certificates.

           If the keyUsage extension is present, then additional restraints
           are made on the uses of the certificate.  A CA certificate must
           have the keyCertSign bit set if the keyUsage extension is present.

           The extended key usage extension places additional restrictions on
           the certificate uses.  If this extension is present, whether
           critical or not, the key can only be used for the purposes
           specified.

           A complete description of each test is given below.  The comments
           about basicConstraints and keyUsage and V1 certificates above apply
           to all CA certificates.

           SSL Client
                 The extended key usage extension must be absent or include
                 the web client authentication OID.  keyUsage must be absent
                 or it must have the digitalSignature bit set.  The Netscape
                 certificate type must be absent or it must have the SSL
                 client bit set.

           SSL Client CA
                 The extended key usage extension must be absent or include
                 the web client authentication OID.  The Netscape certificate
                 type must be absent or it must have the SSL CA bit set: this
                 is used as a workaround if the basicConstraints extension is
                 absent.

           SSL Server
                 The extended key usage extension must be absent or include
                 the web server authentication and/or one of the SGC OIDs.
                 keyUsage must be absent or it must have the digitalSignature
                 set, the keyEncipherment set, or both bits set.  The Netscape
                 certificate type must be absent or have the SSL server bit
                 set.

           SSL Server CA
                 The extended key usage extension must be absent or include
                 the web server authentication and/or one of the SGC OIDs.
                 The Netscape certificate type must be absent or the SSL CA
                 bit must be set: this is used as a workaround if the
                 basicConstraints extension is absent.

           Netscape SSL Server
                 For Netscape SSL clients to connect to an SSL server; it must
                 have the keyEncipherment bit set if the keyUsage extension is
                 present.  This isn't always valid because some cipher suites
                 use the key for digital signing.  Otherwise it is the same as
                 a normal SSL server.

           Common S/MIME Client Tests
                 The extended key usage extension must be absent or include
                 the email protection OID.  The Netscape certificate type must
                 be absent or should have the S/MIME bit set.  If the S/MIME
                 bit is not set in Netscape certificate type, then the SSL
                 client bit is tolerated as an alternative but a warning is
                 shown: this is because some Verisign certificates don't set
                 the S/MIME bit.

           S/MIME Signing
                 In addition to the common S/MIME client tests, the
                 digitalSignature bit must be set if the keyUsage extension is
                 present.

           S/MIME Encryption
                 In addition to the common S/MIME tests, the keyEncipherment
                 bit must be set if the keyUsage extension is present.

           S/MIME CA
                 The extended key usage extension must be absent or include
                 the email protection OID.  The Netscape certificate type must
                 be absent or must have the S/MIME CA bit set: this is used as
                 a workaround if the basicConstraints extension is absent.

           CRL Signing
                 The keyUsage extension must be absent or it must have the CRL
                 signing bit set.

           CRL Signing CA
                 The normal CA tests apply, except the basicConstraints
                 extension must be present.

     -setalias arg
           Set the alias of the certificate, allowing the certificate to be
           referred to using a nickname, such as "Steve's Certificate".

     -trustout
           Output a trusted certificate (the default if any trust settings are
           modified).  An ordinary or trusted certificate can be input, but by
           default an ordinary certificate is output and any trust settings
           are discarded.

     The x509 utility can be used to sign certificates and requests: it can
     thus behave like a mini CA.  The following are x509 signing options:

     -CA file
           The CA certificate to be used for signing.  When this option is
           present, x509 behaves like a mini CA.  The input file is signed by
           the CA using this option; that is, its issuer name is set to the
           subject name of the CA and it is digitally signed using the CA's
           private key.

           This option is normally combined with the -req option.  Without the
           -req option, the input is a certificate which must be self-signed.

     -CAcreateserial
           Create the CA serial number file if it does not exist instead of
           generating an error.  The file will contain the serial number `02'
           and the certificate being signed will have `1' as its serial
           number.

     -CAform der | pem
           The format of the CA certificate file.  The default is pem.

     -CAkey file
           Set the CA private key to sign a certificate with.  Otherwise it is
           assumed that the CA private key is present in the CA certificate
           file.

     -CAkeyform der | pem
           The format of the CA private key.  The default is pem.

     -CAserial file
           Use the serial number in file to sign a certificate.  The file
           should consist of one line containing an even number of hex digits
           with the serial number to use.  After each use the serial number is
           incremented and written out to the file again.

           The default filename consists of the CA certificate file base name
           with .srl appended.  For example, if the CA certificate file is
           called mycacert.pem, it expects to find a serial number file called
           mycacert.srl.

     -checkend arg
           Check whether the certificate expires in the next arg seconds.  If
           so, exit with return value 1; otherwise exit with return value 0.

     -clrext
           Delete any extensions from a certificate.  This option is used when
           a certificate is being created from another certificate (for
           example with the -signkey or the -CA options).  Normally, all
           extensions are retained.

     -days arg
           The number of days to make a certificate valid for.  The default is
           30 days.

     -extensions section
           The section to add certificate extensions from.  If this option is
           not specified, the extensions should either be contained in the
           unnamed (default) section or the default section should contain a
           variable called "extensions" which contains the section to use.

     -extfile file
           File containing certificate extensions to use.  If not specified,
           no extensions are added to the certificate.

     -keyform der | pem
           The format of the private key file used in the -signkey option.

     -req  Expect a certificate request on input instead of a certificate.

     -set_serial n
           The serial number to use.  This option can be used with either the
           -signkey or -CA options.  If used in conjunction with the -CA
           option, the serial number file (as specified by the -CAserial or
           -CAcreateserial options) is not used.

           The serial number can be decimal or hex (if preceded by `0x').
           Negative serial numbers can also be specified but their use is not
           recommended.

     -signkey file
           Self-sign file using the supplied private key.

           If the input file is a certificate, it sets the issuer name to the
           subject name (i.e. makes it self-signed), changes the public key to
           the supplied value, and changes the start and end dates.  The start
           date is set to the current time and the end date is set to a value
           determined by the -days option.  Any certificate extensions are
           retained unless the -clrext option is supplied.

           If the input is a certificate request, a self-signed certificate is
           created using the supplied private key using the subject name in
           the request.

     -x509toreq
           Convert a certificate into a certificate request.  The -signkey
           option is used to pass the required private key.


COMMON NOTATION

     Several commands share a common syntax, as detailed below.

     Password arguments, typically specified using -passin and -passout for
     input and output passwords, allow passwords to be obtained from a variety
     of sources.  Both of these options take a single argument, described
     below.  If no password argument is given and a password is required, then
     the user is prompted to enter one: this will typically be read from the
     current terminal with echoing turned off.

           pass:password  The actual password is password.  Since the password
                          is visible to utilities, this form should only be
                          used where security is not important.

           env:var        Obtain the password from the environment variable
                          var.  Since the environment of other processes is
                          visible, this option should be used with caution.

           file:path      The first line of path is the password.  If the same
                          path argument is supplied to -passin and -passout,
                          then the first line will be used for the input
                          password and the next line for the output password.
                          path need not refer to a regular file: it could, for
                          example, refer to a device or named pipe.

           fd:number      Read the password from the file descriptor number.
                          This can be used to send the data via a pipe, for
                          example.

           stdin          Read the password from standard input.

     Input/output formats, typically specified using -inform and -outform,
     indicate the format being read from or written to.  The argument is case
     insensitive.

           der     Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER) is a binary format.
           net     Insecure legacy format.
           pem     Privacy Enhanced Mail (PEM) is base64-encoded.
           smime   An SMIME format message.
           txt     Plain ASCII text.


ENVIRONMENT

     The following environment variables affect the execution of openssl:

     OPENSSL_CONF          The location of the master configuration file.


FILES

     /etc/ssl/             Default config directory for openssl.
     /etc/ssl/lib/         Unused.
     /etc/ssl/private/     Default private key directory.
     /etc/ssl/openssl.cnf  Default configuration file for openssl.
     /etc/ssl/x509v3.cnf   Default configuration file for x509 certificates.


SEE ALSO

     acme-client(1), nc(1), ssl(8), starttls(8)


STANDARDS

     T. Dierks and C. Allen, The TLS Protocol Version 1.0, RFC 2246, January
     1999.

     M. Wahl, S. Killie, and T. Howes, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
     (v3): UTF-8 String Representation of Distinguished Names, RFC 2253,
     December 1997.

     B. Kaliski, PKCS #7: Cryptographic Message Syntax Version 1.5, RFC 2315,
     March 1998.

     R. Housley, W. Ford, W. Polk, and D. Solo, Internet X.509 Public Key
     Infrastructure Certificate and CRL Profile, RFC 2459, January 1999.

     M. Myers, R. Ankney, A. Malpani, S. Galperin, and C. Adams, X.509
     Internet Public Key Infrastructure Online Certificate Status Protocol -
     OCSP, RFC 2560, June 1999.

     R. Housley, Cryptographic Message Syntax, RFC 2630, June 1999.

     P. Chown, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Ciphersuites for Transport
     Layer Security (TLS), RFC 3268, June 2002.

OpenBSD 6.2                     August 28, 2017                    OpenBSD 6.2

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