du



DU(1)                       General Commands Manual                      DU(1)


NAME

     du - display disk usage statistics


SYNOPSIS

     du [-achkrsx] [-H | -L | -P] [-d depth] [file ...]


DESCRIPTION

     The du utility displays the file system block usage for each file
     argument and for each directory in the file hierarchy rooted in each
     directory argument.  Note that the system block usage is usually greater
     than the actual size of the file.  If no file is specified, the block
     usage of the hierarchy rooted in the current directory is displayed.

     The options are as follows:

     -a      Display entries for files in addition to entries for directories.

     -c      Display the grand total after all the arguments have been
             processed.

     -d depth
             Do not display entries for files and directories more than depth
             levels deep; -d 0 has the same effect as -s.  Overrides earlier
             -d and -s options.

     -H      Symbolic links on the command line are followed.  Symbolic links
             encountered in the tree traversal are not followed.

     -h      "Human-readable" output.  Use unit suffixes: Byte, Kilobyte,
             Megabyte, Gigabyte, Terabyte, Petabyte, Exabyte in order to
             reduce the number of digits to four or less.

     -k      By default, all sizes are reported in 512-byte block counts.  The
             -k option causes the numbers to be reported in kilobyte counts.

     -L      All symbolic links are followed.

     -P      No symbolic links are followed.

     -r      Generate messages about directories that cannot be read, files
             that cannot be opened, and so on.  This is the default.

     -s      Display only the total for each of the specified files and
             directories.  Overrides earlier -d options.

     -x      File system mount points are not traversed.

     It is not an error to specify more than one of the mutually exclusive
     options -h and -k.  Where more than one of these options is specified,
     the last option given overrides the others.

     du counts the storage used by symbolic links and not the files they
     reference unless the -H or -L option is specified.  If either the -H or
     -L options are specified, storage used by any symbolic links which are
     followed is not counted or displayed.  The -H, -L, and -P options
     override each other and the command's actions are determined by the last
     one specified.

     Files having multiple hard links are counted (and displayed) a single
     time per du execution.


ENVIRONMENT

     BLOCKSIZE  Block counts will be displayed in units of this size block,
                unless the -k or -h option is specified.


EXIT STATUS

     The du utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.


SEE ALSO

     df(1), fts(3), symlink(7), quot(8)


STANDARDS

     The du utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'')
     specification.

     The flags [-cdhP], as well as the BLOCKSIZE environment variable, are
     extensions to that specification.

     The flag [-r] is accepted but ignored, for compatibility with systems
     implementing the obsolete X/Open Commands and Utilities Issue 5
     (``XCU5'') standard.


HISTORY

     The du utility and its -a and -s options first appeared in Version 1 AT&T
     UNIX.

     The -r option first appeared in AT&T System III UNIX and is available
     since OpenBSD 2.3.  The -k and -x options first appeared in 4.3BSD-Reno
     and -H in 4.4BSD.  The -c and -L options first appeared in the GNU
     fileutils; -L and -P are available since 4.4BSD-Lite1, -c since
     OpenBSD 2.1.  The -d option first appeared in FreeBSD 2.2 and is
     available since OpenBSD 5.7, -h first appeared in FreeBSD 4.0 and is
     available since OpenBSD 2.9.


AUTHORS

     This version of du was written by Chris Newcomb for 4.3BSD-Reno in 1989
     and incorporates later contributions from Elan Amir, Keith Bostic, Luke
     Mewburn, Matt Bing, and Can Erkin Acar <canacar@openbsd.org>.

OpenBSD 5.9                    October 19, 2014                    OpenBSD 5.9

[Unix Hosting | Open-Source | Contact Us]
[Engineering & Automation | Software Development | Server Applications]