find



FIND(1)                     General Commands Manual                    FIND(1)


NAME

     find - walk a file hierarchy


SYNOPSIS

     find [-dHhLXx] [-f path] path ... [expression]


DESCRIPTION

     find recursively descends the directory tree for each path listed,
     evaluating an expression (composed of the ``primaries'' and ``operators''
     listed below) in terms of each file in the tree.  In the absence of an
     expression, -print is assumed.  If an expression is given, but none of
     the primaries -exec, -ls, -ok, -print, or -print0 are specified, the
     given expression is effectively replaced by ( given expression ) -print.

     The options are as follows:

     -d      Causes find to visit directories in post-order i.e. all entries
             in a directory will be acted on before the directory itself.  By
             default, find visits directories in pre-order i.e. before their
             contents.

     -f path
             Specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse.  File
             hierarchies may be specified without the -f option if they are
             given immediately after any other options.

     -H      Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned
             for each symbolic link encountered on the command line to be
             those of the file referenced by the link, not the link itself.
             If the referenced file does not exist, the file information and
             type will be for the link itself.  File information of all
             symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link
             itself.

     -h      An alias for the -L option.  This option exists for backwards
             compatibility.

     -L      Causes the file information and file type (see stat(2)) returned
             for each symbolic link to be those of the file referenced by the
             link, not the link itself.  If the referenced file does not
             exist, the file information and type will be for the link itself.

     -X      Permit find to be safely used in conjunction with xargs(1).  If a
             file name contains any of the delimiting characters used by
             xargs, a diagnostic message is displayed on standard error, and
             the file is skipped.  The delimiting characters include single
             (`'') and double (`"') quotes, backslash (`\'), space, tab, and
             newline (`\n') characters.  Consider using -print0 instead.

     -x      Prevents find from descending into directories that have a device
             number different than that of the file from which the descent
             began.

     It is not an error to specify more than one of the mutually exclusive
     options -H and -L.  Where more than one of these options is specified,
     the last option given overrides the others.


PRIMARIES

     -amin n
             True if the difference between the file last access time and the
             time find was started, rounded up to the next full minute, is n
             minutes.

     -anewer file
             True if the current file has a more recent last access time than
             file.

     -atime n
             True if the difference between the file last access time and the
             time find was started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour
             period, is n 24-hour periods.

     -cmin n
             True if the difference between the time of last change of file
             status information and the time find was started, rounded up to
             the next full minute, is n minutes.

     -cnewer file
             True if the current file has a more recent last change time than
             file.

     -ctime n
             True if the difference between the time of last change of file
             status information and the time find was started, rounded up to
             the next full 24-hour period, is n 24-hour periods.

     -depth  This primary always evaluates to true.  The same as specifying
             the -d option.

     -empty  True if the current file or directory is empty.

     -exec utility [argument ...] ;
     -exec utility [argument ...] {} +
             Execute the specified utility.  Optional arguments may be passed
             to the utility.  The expression must be terminated by a semicolon
             (`;') or a plus sign (`+').

             If terminated by a semicolon, the utility is executed once per
             path.  If the string "{}" appears anywhere in the utility name or
             the arguments it is replaced by the pathname of the current file.

             If terminated by a plus sign, the pathnames for which the primary
             is evaluated are aggregated into sets, and utility will be
             invoked once per set, similar to xargs(1).  If any invocation
             exits with a non-zero exit status, then find will eventually do
             so as well, but this does not cause find to exit early.  The
             string "{}" must appear, and must appear last.  Each set is
             limited to no more than 5,000 pathnames, and is also limited such
             that the invocation of utility does not exceed ARG_MAX.

     -execdir utility [argument ...] ;
             Identical to the first form of the -exec primary with the
             exception that utility will be executed from the directory that
             holds the current file.  The filename substituted for the string
             "{}" is not qualified.

     -flags [-]flags
             The flags are comma-separated symbolic file flags (see chflags(1)
             for a list of valid flag names).  If the flags are preceded by a
             dash (`-'), this primary evaluates to true if at least all
             specified flags are set in the file's flags.  If the flags are
             not preceded by a dash, this primary evaluates to true if the
             flags specified exactly match those of the file.

     -follow
             This primary always evaluates to true.  The same as specifying
             the -L option.

     -fstype type
             True if the file is contained in a file system of type type.  Two
             special file system types are recognized: ``local'' and
             ``rdonly''.  These do not describe actual file system types; the
             former matches any file system physically mounted on the system
             where find is being executed whereas the latter matches any file
             system which is mounted read-only.

     -group gname
             True if the file belongs to the group gname.  If gname is numeric
             and there is no such group name, then gname is treated as a group
             ID.

     -iname pattern
             Identical to the -name primary except that the matching is done
             in a case insensitive manner.

     -inum n
             True if the file has inode number n.

     -links n
             True if the file has n links.

     -ls     This primary always evaluates to true.  The following information
             for the current file is written to standard output: its inode
             number, size in 512-byte blocks, file permissions, number of hard
             links, owner, group, size in bytes, last modification time, and
             pathname.  If the file is a block or character special file, the
             major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in
             bytes.  If the file is a symbolic link, the pathname of the
             linked-to file will be displayed preceded by ``->''.  The format
             is identical to that produced by ``ls -dils''.

     -maxdepth n
             True if the current search depth is less than or equal to what is
             specified in n.

     -mindepth n
             True if the current search depth is at least what is specified in
             n.

     -mmin n
             True if the difference between the file last modification time
             and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full
             minute, is n minutes.

     -mtime n
             True if the difference between the file last modification time
             and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full
             24-hour period, is n 24-hour periods.

     -name pattern
             True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches
             pattern, which may use any of the special characters documented
             in glob(7).

     -newer file
             True if the current file has a more recent last modification time
             than file.

     -nogroup
             True if the file belongs to an unknown group.

     -nouser
             True if the file belongs to an unknown user.

     -ok utility [argument ...] ;
             Identical to the -exec primary with the exception that find
             requests user affirmation for the execution of utility by
             printing a message to the terminal and reading a response.  If
             the response is other than `y' the command is not executed and
             the value of the ok expression is false.

     -path pattern
             True if the pathname being examined matches pattern, which may
             use any of the special characters documented in glob(7).  Slashes
             (`/') are treated as normal characters and do not have to be
             matched explicitly.

     -perm [-]mode
             The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal
             number.  If the mode is symbolic, a starting value of zero is
             assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to
             the process's file mode creation mask.  If the mode is octal,
             only bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG
             | S_IRWXO) of the file's mode bits participate in the comparison.
             If the mode is preceded by a dash (`-'), this primary evaluates
             to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the
             file's mode bits.  If the mode is not preceded by a dash, this
             primary evaluates to true if the bits in the mode exactly match
             the file's mode bits.  Note, the first character of a symbolic
             mode may not be a dash.

     -print  This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of
             the current file to standard output, followed by a newline (`\n')
             character.

     -print0
             This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of
             the current file to standard output, followed by a null
             character, suitable for use with the -0 option to xargs(1).

     -prune  This primary always evaluates to true.  It causes find to not
             descend into the current file.  Note, the -prune primary has no
             effect if the -d option was specified.

     -size n[c]
             True if the file's size, rounded up, in 512-byte blocks is n.  If
             n is followed by a `c', then the primary is true if the file's
             size is n bytes.

     -type t
             True if the file is of the specified type.  Possible file types
             are as follows:

                   b     block special
                   c     character special
                   d     directory
                   f     regular file
                   l     symbolic link
                   p     FIFO
                   s     socket

     -user uname
             True if the file belongs to the user uname.  If uname is numeric
             and there is no such user name, then uname is treated as a user
             ID.

     -xdev   This primary always evaluates to true.  The same as specifying
             the -x option.

     All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be
     preceded by a plus sign (`+') or a minus sign (`-').  A preceding plus
     sign means ``more than n'', a preceding minus sign means ``less than n'',
     and neither means ``exactly n''.  Exceptions are the primaries mindepth
     and maxdepth.


OPERATORS

     The primaries may be combined using the following operators.  The
     operators are listed in order of decreasing precedence.

     ( expression )
                   This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression
                   evaluates to true.

     ! expression  This is the unary NOT operator.  It evaluates to true if
                   the expression is false.

     expression -a expression
     expression -and expression
     expression expression
                   The logical AND operator.  As it is implied by the
                   juxtaposition of two expressions it does not have to be
                   specified.  The expression evaluates to true if both
                   expressions are true.  The second expression is not
                   evaluated if the first expression is false.

     expression -o expression
     expression -or expression
                   The logical OR operator.  The expression evaluates to true
                   if either the first or the second expression is true.  The
                   second expression is not evaluated if the first expression
                   is true.

     Operators, primaries, and arguments to primaries must be separate
     arguments to find, i.e. they should be separated by whitespace.


EXIT STATUS

     The find utility exits with a value of 0 on successful traversal of all
     path operands or with a value >0 if an error occurred.


EXAMPLES

     Print out a list of all the files whose names end in ``.c'':

           $ find / -name '*.c'

     Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than ``ttt''
     and owned by ``wnj'':

           $ find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \)

     Print out a list of all core files on local file systems:

           $ find / \! -fstype local -prune -o -name '*.core'

     Find all files in /usr/src ending in a dot and single digit, but skip
     directory /usr/src/gnu:

           $ find /usr/src -path /usr/src/gnu -prune -o -name \*.[0-9]

     Find and remove all *.jpg and *.gif files under the current working
     directory:

           $ find . \( -name \*.jpg -o -name \*.gif \) -exec rm {} \;
     or
           $ find . \( -name \*.jpg -o -name \*.gif \) -print0 | xargs -0r rm


SEE ALSO

     chflags(1), chmod(1), locate(1), ls(1), whereis(1), which(1), xargs(1),
     stat(2), fts(3), glob(7), symlink(7)


STANDARDS

     The find utility is compliant with the IEEE Std 1003.1-2008 (``POSIX.1'')
     specification.

     The options [-dfhXx], primaries -amin, -anewer, -cmin, -cnewer, -empty,
     -execdir, -flags, -follow, -fstype, -iname, -inum, -ls, -maxdepth,
     -mindepth, -mmin, and -print0, and operators -or and -and, are extensions
     to that specification.

     Historically, the -d, -L, and -x options were implemented using the
     primaries -depth, -follow, and -xdev.  These primaries always evaluated
     to true.  As they were really global variables that took effect before
     the traversal began, some legal expressions could have unexpected
     results.  An example is the expression ``-print -o -depth''.  As -print
     always evaluates to true, the standard order of evaluation implies that
     -depth would never be evaluated.  This is not the case.

     Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace
     the string "{}" in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had
     preceding or following non-whitespace characters.  This version replaces
     it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears.


HISTORY

     A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.


CAVEATS

     The special characters used by find are also special characters to many
     shell programs.  In particular, the characters `*', `[', `]', `?', `(',
     `)', `!', `\', and `;' may have to be escaped from the shell.

     As file names may contain whitespace and shell metacharacters, passing
     the output of find to other programs requires some care:

           $ find . -name \*.jpg | xargs rm
     or
           $ rm `find . -name \*.jpg`

     would, given files ``important .jpg'' and ``important'', remove
     ``important''.  Use the -print0 or -exec primaries instead.

     As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names
     and the expression, it is difficult to specify files named ``-xdev'' or
     `!'.  These problems are handled by the -f option and the getopt(3) `--'
     construct.

OpenBSD 5.9                   September 11, 2015                   OpenBSD 5.9

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