unzip



UNZIP(1L)                                                            UNZIP(1L)


NAME

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive


SYNOPSIS

       unzip [-Z] [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCDKLMUVWX$/:^]] file[.zip] [file(s) ...]
       [-x xfile(s) ...] [-d exdir]


DESCRIPTION

       unzip will list, test, or extract files from a ZIP archive, commonly
       found on MS-DOS systems.  The default behavior (with no options) is to
       extract into the current directory (and subdirectories below it) all
       files from the specified ZIP archive.  A companion program, zip(1L),
       creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with archives
       created by PKWARE's PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many cases the
       program options or default behaviors differ.


ARGUMENTS

       file[.zip]
              Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If the file specification is a
              wildcard, each matching file is processed in an order determined
              by the operating system (or file system).  Only the filename can
              be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions are
              similar to those supported in commonly used Unix shells (sh,
              ksh, csh) and may contain:

              *      matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

              ?      matches exactly 1 character

              [...]  matches any single character found inside the brackets;
                     ranges are specified by a beginning character, a hyphen,
                     and an ending character.  If an exclamation point or a
                     caret (`!' or `^') follows the left bracket, then the
                     range of characters within the brackets is complemented
                     (that is, anything except the characters inside the
                     brackets is considered a match).  To specify a verbatim
                     left bracket, the three-character sequence ``[[]'' has to
                     be used.

              (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be
              interpreted or modified by the operating system, particularly
              under Unix and VMS.)  If no matches are found, the specification
              is assumed to be a literal filename; and if that also fails, the
              suffix .zip is appended.  Note that self-extracting ZIP files
              are supported, as with any other ZIP archive; just specify the
              .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

       [file(s)]
              An optional list of archive members to be processed, separated
              by spaces.  (VMS versions compiled with VMSCLI defined must
              delimit files with commas instead.  See -v in OPTIONS below.)
              Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match multiple
              members; see above.  Again, be sure to quote expressions that
              would otherwise be expanded or modified by the operating system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
              An optional list of archive members to be excluded from
              processing.  Since wildcard characters normally match (`/')
              directory separators (for exceptions see the option -W), this
              option may be used to exclude any files that are in
              subdirectories.  For example, ``unzip foo *.[ch] -x */*'' would
              extract all C source files in the main directory, but none in
              any subdirectories.  Without the -x option, all C source files
              in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
              An optional directory to which to extract files.  By default,
              all files and subdirectories are recreated in the current
              directory; the -d option allows extraction in an arbitrary
              directory (always assuming one has permission to write to the
              directory).  This option need not appear at the end of the
              command line; it is also accepted before the zipfile
              specification (with the normal options), immediately after the
              zipfile specification, or between the file(s) and the -x option.
              The option and directory may be concatenated without any white
              space between them, but note that this may cause normal shell
              behavior to be suppressed.  In particular, ``-d ~'' (tilde) is
              expanded by Unix C shells into the name of the user's home
              directory, but ``-d~'' is treated as a literal subdirectory
              ``~'' of the current directory.


OPTIONS

       Note that, in order to support obsolescent hardware, unzip's usage
       screen is limited to 22 or 23 lines and should therefore be considered
       only a reminder of the basic unzip syntax rather than an exhaustive
       list of all possible flags.  The exhaustive list follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1L) mode.  If the first option on the command line is
              -Z, the remaining options are taken to be zipinfo(1L) options.
              See the appropriate manual page for a description of these
              options.

       -A     [OS/2, Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL's programming
              interface (API).

       -c     extract files to stdout/screen (``CRT'').  This option is
              similar to the -p option except that the name of each file is
              printed as it is extracted, the -a option is allowed, and ASCII-
              EBCDIC conversion is automatically performed if appropriate.
              This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen existing files, i.e., extract only those files that
              already exist on disk and that are newer than the disk copies.
              By default unzip queries before overwriting, but the -o option
              may be used to suppress the queries.  Note that under many
              operating systems, the TZ (timezone) environment variable must
              be set correctly in order for -f and -u to work properly (under
              Unix the variable is usually set automatically).  The reasons
              for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences
              between DOS-format file times (always local time) and Unix-
              format times (always in GMT/UTC) and the necessity to compare
              the two.  A typical TZ value is ``PST8PDT'' (US Pacific time
              with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or ``summer
              time'').

       -l     list archive files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file
              sizes and modification dates and times of the specified files
              are printed, along with totals for all files specified.  If
              UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined, the -l option also
              lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes
              (EAs) and OS/2 access control lists (ACLs).  In addition, the
              zipfile comment and individual file comments (if any) are
              displayed.  If a file was archived from a single-case file
              system (for example, the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L
              option was given, the filename is converted to lowercase and is
              prefixed with a caret (^).

       -p     extract files to pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the file data is
              sent to stdout, and the files are always extracted in binary
              format, just as they are stored (no conversions).

       -t     test archive files.  This option extracts each specified file in
              memory and compares the CRC (cyclic redundancy check, an
              enhanced checksum) of the expanded file with the original file's
              stored CRC value.

       -T     [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the
              newest file in each one.  This corresponds to zip's -go option
              except that it can be used on wildcard zipfiles (e.g., ``unzip
              -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.

       -u     update existing files and create new ones if needed.  This
              option performs the same function as the -f option, extracting
              (with query) files that are newer than those with the same name
              on disk, and in addition it extracts those files that do not
              already exist on disk.  See -f above for information on setting
              the timezone properly.

       -v     list archive files (verbose format) or show diagnostic version
              info.  This option has evolved and now behaves as both an option
              and a modifier.  As an option it has two purposes:  when a
              zipfile is specified with no other options, -v lists archive
              files verbosely, adding to the basic -l info the compression
              method, compressed size, compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.  In
              contrast to most of the competing utilities, unzip removes the
              12 additional header bytes of encrypted entries from the
              compressed size numbers.  Therefore, compressed size and
              compression ratio figures are independent of the entry's
              encryption status and show the correct compression performance.
              (The complete size of the encrypted compressed data stream for
              zipfile entries is reported by the more verbose zipinfo(1L)
              reports, see the separate manual.)  When no zipfile is specified
              (that is, the complete command is simply ``unzip -v''), a
              diagnostic screen is printed.  In addition to the normal header
              with release date and version, unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp
              site and where to find a list of other ftp and non-ftp sites;
              the target operating system for which it was compiled, as well
              as (possibly) the hardware on which it was compiled, the
              compiler and version used, and the compilation date; any special
              compilation options that might affect the program's operation
              (see also DECRYPTION below); and any options stored in
              environment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT
              OPTIONS below).  As a modifier it works in conjunction with
              other options (e.g., -t) to produce more verbose or debugging
              output; this is not yet fully implemented but will be in future
              releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.


MODIFIERS

       -a     convert text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly
              as they are stored (as ``binary'' files).  The -a option causes
              files identified by zip as text files (those with the `t' label
              in zipinfo listings, rather than `b') to be automatically
              extracted as such, converting line endings, end-of-file
              characters and the character set itself as necessary.  (For
              example, Unix files use line feeds (LFs) for end-of-line (EOL)
              and have no end-of-file (EOF) marker; Macintoshes use carriage
              returns (CRs) for EOLs; and most PC operating systems use CR+LF
              for EOLs and control-Z for EOF.  In addition, IBM mainframes and
              the Michigan Terminal System use EBCDIC rather than the more
              common ASCII character set, and NT supports Unicode.)  Note that
              zip's identification of text files is by no means perfect; some
              ``text'' files may actually be binary and vice versa.  unzip
              therefore prints ``[text]'' or ``[binary]'' as a visual check
              for each file it extracts when using the -a option.  The -aa
              option forces all files to be extracted as text, regardless of
              the supposed file type.  On VMS, see also -S.

       -b     [general] treat all files as binary (no text conversions).  This
              is a shortcut for ---a.

       -b     [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 ('C')
              when extracting Zip entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is
              enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS] auto-convert binary files (see -a above) to fixed-length,
              512-byte record format.  Doubling the option (-bb) forces all
              files to be extracted in this format. When extracting to
              standard output (-c or -p option in effect), the default
              conversion of text record delimiters is disabled for binary (-b)
              resp. all (-bb) files.

       -B     [when compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a backup copy of
              each overwritten file. The backup file is gets the name of the
              target file with a tilde and optionally a unique sequence number
              (up to 5 digits) appended.  The sequence number is applied
              whenever another file with the original name plus tilde already
              exists.  When used together with the "overwrite all" option -o,
              numbered backup files are never created. In this case, all
              backup files are named as the original file with an appended
              tilde, existing backup files are deleted without notice.  This
              feature works similarly to the default behavior of emacs(1) in
              many locations.

              Example: the old copy of ``foo'' is renamed to ``foo~''.

              Warning: Users should be aware that the -B option does not
              prevent loss of existing data under all circumstances.  For
              example, when unzip is run in overwrite-all mode, an existing
              ``foo~'' file is deleted before unzip attempts to rename ``foo''
              to ``foo~''.  When this rename attempt fails (because of a file
              locks, insufficient privileges, or ...), the extraction of
              ``foo~'' gets cancelled, but the old backup file is already
              lost.  A similar scenario takes place when the sequence number
              range for numbered backup files gets exhausted (99999, or 65535
              for 16-bit systems).  In this case, the backup file with the
              maximum sequence number is deleted and replaced by the new
              backup version without notice.

       -C     use case-insensitive matching for the selection of archive
              entries from the command-line list of extract selection
              patterns.  unzip's philosophy is ``you get what you ask for''
              (this is also responsible for the -L/-U change; see the relevant
              options below).  Because some file systems are fully case-
              sensitive (notably those under the Unix operating system) and
              because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are portable across
              platforms, unzip's default behavior is to match both wildcard
              and literal filenames case-sensitively.  That is, specifying
              ``makefile'' on the command line will only match ``makefile'' in
              the archive, not ``Makefile'' or ``MAKEFILE'' (and similarly for
              wildcard specifications).  Since this does not correspond to the
              behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example, OS/2
              HPFS, which preserves mixed case but is not sensitive to it),
              the -C option may be used to force all filename matches to be
              case-insensitive.  In the example above, all three files would
              then match ``makefile'' (or ``make*'', or similar).  The -C
              option affects file specs in both the normal file list and the
              excluded-file list (xlist).

              Please note that the -C option does neither affect the search
              for the zipfile(s) nor the matching of archive entries to
              existing files on the extraction path.  On a case-sensitive file
              system, unzip will never try to overwrite a file ``FOO'' when
              extracting an entry ``foo''!

       -D     skip restoration of timestamps for extracted items.  Normally,
              unzip tries to restore all meta-information for extracted items
              that are supplied in the Zip archive (and do not require
              privileges or impose a security risk).  By specifying -D, unzip
              is told to suppress restoration of timestamps for directories
              explicitly created from Zip archive entries.  This option only
              applies to ports that support setting timestamps for directories
              (currently ATheOS, BeOS, MacOS, OS/2, Unix, VMS, Win32, for
              other unzip ports, -D has no effect).  The duplicated option -DD
              forces suppression of timestamp restoration for all extracted
              entries (files and directories).  This option results in setting
              the timestamps for all extracted entries to the current time.

              On VMS, the default setting for this option is -D for
              consistency with the behaviour of BACKUP: file timestamps are
              restored, timestamps of extracted directories are left at the
              current time.  To enable restoration of directory timestamps,
              the negated option --D should be specified.  On VMS, the option
              -D disables timestamp restoration for all extracted Zip archive
              items.  (Here, a single -D on the command line combines with the
              default -D to do what an explicit -DD does on other systems.)

       -E     [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during
              restore operation.

       -F     [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from
              stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn systems supporting long filenames with embedded
              commas, and only if compiled with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined]
              translate filetype information from ACORN RISC OS extra field
              blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the names
              of the extracted files.  (When the stored filename appears to
              already have an appended NFS filetype extension, it is replaced
              by the info from the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields.
              Instead, the most compatible filename stored in the generic part
              of the entry's header is used.

       -j     junk paths.  The archive's directory structure is not recreated;
              all files are deposited in the extraction directory (by default,
              the current one).

       -J     [BeOS only] junk file attributes.  The file's BeOS file
              attributes are not restored, just the file's data.

       -J     [MacOS only] ignore MacOS extra fields.  All Macintosh specific
              info is skipped. Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as
              separate files.

       -K     [AtheOS, BeOS, Unix only] retain SUID/SGID/Tacky file
              attributes.  Without this flag, these attribute bits are cleared
              for security reasons.

       -L     convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-
              only operating system or file system.  (This was unzip's default
              behavior in releases prior to 5.11; the new default behavior is
              identical to the old behavior with the -U option, which is now
              obsolete and will be removed in a future release.)  Depending on
              the archiver, files archived under single-case file systems
              (VMS, old MS-DOS FAT, etc.) may be stored as all-uppercase
              names; this can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting to a
              case-preserving file system such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-
              sensitive one such as under Unix.  By default unzip lists and
              extracts such filenames exactly as they're stored (excepting
              truncation, conversion of unsupported characters, etc.); this
              option causes the names of all files from certain systems to be
              converted to lowercase.  The -LL option forces conversion of
              every filename to lowercase, regardless of the originating file
              system.

       -M     pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix
              more(1) command.  At the end of a screenful of output, unzip
              pauses with a ``--More--'' prompt; the next screenful may be
              viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar.
              unzip can be terminated by pressing the ``q'' key and, on some
              systems, the Enter/Return key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no
              forward-searching or editing capability.  Also, unzip doesn't
              notice if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effectively
              resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the
              likelihood that some text will scroll off the top of the screen
              before being viewed.  On some systems the number of available
              lines on the screen is not detected, in which case unzip assumes
              the height is 24 lines.

       -n     never overwrite existing files.  If a file already exists, skip
              the extraction of that file without prompting.  By default unzip
              queries before extracting any file that already exists; the user
              may choose to overwrite only the current file, overwrite all
              files, skip extraction of the current file, skip extraction of
              all existing files, or rename the current file.

       -N     [Amiga] extract file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File comments
              are created with the -c option of zip(1L), or with the -N option
              of the Amiga port of zip(1L), which stores filenotes as
              comments.

       -o     overwrite existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous
              option, so use it with care.  (It is often used with -f,
              however, and is the only way to overwrite directory EAs under
              OS/2.)

       -P password
              use password to decrypt encrypted zipfile entries (if any).
              THIS IS INSECURE!  Many multi-user operating systems provide
              ways for any user to see the current command line of any other
              user; even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of
              over-the-shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as
              part of a command line in an automated script is even worse.
              Whenever possible, use the non-echoing, interactive prompt to
              enter passwords.  (And where security is truly important, use
              strong encryption such as Pretty Good Privacy instead of the
              relatively weak encryption provided by standard zipfile
              utilities.)

       -q     perform operations quietly (-qq = even quieter).  Ordinarily
              unzip prints the names of the files it's extracting or testing,
              the extraction methods, any file or zipfile comments that may be
              stored in the archive, and possibly a summary when finished with
              each archive.  The -q[q] options suppress the printing of some
              or all of these messages.

       -s     [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores.
              Since all PC operating systems allow spaces in filenames, unzip
              by default extracts filenames with spaces intact (e.g.,
              ``EA DATA. SF'').  This can be awkward, however, since MS-DOS in
              particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames.
              Conversion of spaces to underscores can eliminate the
              awkwardness in some cases.

       -S     [VMS] convert text files (-a, -aa) into Stream_LF record format,
              instead of the text-file default, variable-length record format.
              (Stream_LF is the default record format of VMS unzip. It is
              applied unless conversion (-a, -aa and/or -b, -bb) is requested
              or a VMS-specific entry is processed.)

       -U     [UNICODE_SUPPORT only] modify or disable UTF-8 handling.  When
              UNICODE_SUPPORT is available, the option -U forces unzip to
              escape all non-ASCII characters from UTF-8 coded filenames as
              ``#Uxxxx'' (for UCS-2 characters, or ``#Lxxxxxx'' for unicode
              codepoints needing 3 octets).  This option is mainly provided
              for debugging purpose when the fairly new UTF-8 support is
              suspected to mangle up extracted filenames.

              The option -UU allows to entirely disable the recognition of
              UTF-8 encoded filenames.  The handling of filename codings
              within unzip falls back to the behaviour of previous versions.

              [old, obsolete usage] leave filenames uppercase if created under
              MS-DOS, VMS, etc.  See -L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with
              a version number, in the format file.ext;##.  By default the
              ``;##'' version numbers are stripped, but this option allows
              them to be retained.  (On file systems that limit filenames to
              particularly short lengths, the version numbers may be truncated
              or stripped regardless of this option.)

       -W     [only when WILD_STOP_AT_DIR compile-time option enabled]
              modifies the pattern matching routine so that both `?' (single-
              char wildcard) and `*' (multi-char wildcard) do not match the
              directory separator character `/'.  (The two-character sequence
              ``**'' acts as a multi-char wildcard that includes the directory
              separator in its matched characters.)  Examples:

           "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
           "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
           "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
           "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and "abc/foo"
                   but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"

              This modified behaviour is equivalent to the pattern matching
              style used by the shells of some of UnZip's supported target OSs
              (one example is Acorn RISC OS).  This option may not be
              available on systems where the Zip archive's internal directory
              separator character `/' is allowed as regular character in
              native operating system filenames.  (Currently, UnZip uses the
              same pattern matching rules for both wildcard zipfile
              specifications and zip entry selection patterns in most ports.
              For systems allowing `/' as regular filename character, the -W
              option would not work as expected on a wildcard zipfile
              specification.)

       -X     [VMS, Unix, OS/2, NT, Tandem] restore owner/protection info
              (UICs and ACL entries) under VMS, or user and group info
              (UID/GID) under Unix, or access control lists (ACLs) under
              certain network-enabled versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM
              LAN Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp Connect with IBM Peer
              1.0), or security ACLs under Windows NT.  In most cases this
              will require special system privileges, and doubling the option
              (-XX) under NT instructs unzip to use privileges for extraction;
              but under Unix, for example, a user who belongs to several
              groups can restore files owned by any of those groups, as long
              as the user IDs match his or her own.  Note that ordinary file
              attributes are always restored--this option applies only to
              optional, extra ownership info available on some operating
              systems.  [NT's access control lists do not appear to be
              especially compatible with OS/2's, so no attempt is made at
              cross-platform portability of access privileges.  It is not
              clear under what conditions this would ever be useful anyway.]

       -Y     [VMS] treat archived file name endings of ``.nnn'' (where
              ``nnn'' is a decimal  number) as if they were VMS version
              numbers (``;nnn'').  (The default is to treat them as file
              types.)  Example:
                   "a.b.3" -> "a.b;3".

       -$     [MS-DOS, OS/2, NT] restore the volume label if the extraction
              medium is removable (e.g., a diskette).  Doubling the option
              (-$$) allows fixed media (hard disks) to be labelled as well.
              By default, volume labels are ignored.

       -/ extensions
              [Acorn only] overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext
              environment variable. During extraction, filename extensions
              that match one of the items in this extension list are swapped
              in front of the base name of the extracted file.

       -:     [all but Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to extract archive
              members into locations outside of the current `` extraction root
              folder''. For security reasons, unzip normally removes ``parent
              dir'' path components (``../'') from the names of extracted
              file.  This safety feature (new for version 5.50) prevents unzip
              from accidentally writing files to ``sensitive'' areas outside
              the active extraction folder tree head.  The -: option lets
              unzip switch back to its previous, more liberal behaviour, to
              allow exact extraction of (older) archives that used ``../''
              components to create multiple directory trees at the level of
              the current extraction folder.  This option does not enable
              writing explicitly to the root directory (``/'').  To achieve
              this, it is necessary to set the extraction target folder to
              root (e.g. -d / ).  However, when the -: option is specified, it
              is still possible to implicitly write to the root directory by
              specifying enough ``../'' path components within the zip
              archive.  Use this option with extreme caution.

       -^     [Unix only] allow control characters in names of extracted ZIP
              archive entries.  On Unix, a file name may contain any (8-bit)
              character code with the two exception '/' (directory delimiter)
              and NUL (0x00, the C string termination indicator), unless the
              specific file system has more restrictive conventions.
              Generally, this allows to embed ASCII control characters (or
              even sophisticated control sequences) in file names, at least on
              'native' Unix file systems.  However, it may be highly
              suspicious to make use of this Unix "feature".  Embedded control
              characters in file names might have nasty side effects when
              displayed on screen by some listing code without sufficient
              filtering.  And, for ordinary users, it may be difficult to
              handle such file names (e.g. when trying to specify it for open,
              copy, move, or delete operations).  Therefore, unzip applies a
              filter by default that removes potentially dangerous control
              characters from the extracted file names. The -^ option allows
              to override this filter in the rare case that embedded filename
              control characters are to be intentionally restored.

       -2     [VMS] force unconditionally conversion of file names to
              ODS2-compatible names.  The default is to exploit the
              destination file system, preserving case and extended file name
              characters on an ODS5 destination file system; and applying the
              ODS2-compatibility file name filtering on an ODS2 destination
              file system.


ENVIRONMENT OPTIONS

       unzip's default behavior may be modified via options placed in an
       environment variable.  This can be done with any option, but it is
       probably most useful with the -a, -L, -C, -q, -o, or -n modifiers:
       make unzip auto-convert text files by default, make it convert
       filenames from uppercase systems to lowercase, make it match names
       case-insensitively, make it quieter, or make it always overwrite or
       never overwrite files as it extracts them.  For example, to make unzip
       act as quietly as possible, only reporting errors, one would use one of
       the following commands:

         Unix Bourne shell:
              UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP

         Unix C shell:
              setenv UNZIP -qq

         OS/2 or MS-DOS:
              set UNZIP=-qq

         VMS (quotes for lowercase):
              define UNZIP_OPTS "-qq"

       Environment options are, in effect, considered to be just like any
       other command-line options, except that they are effectively the first
       options on the command line.  To override an environment option, one
       may use the ``minus operator'' to remove it.  For instance, to override
       one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use the command

       unzip --q[other options] zipfile

       The first hyphen is the normal switch character, and the second is a
       minus sign, acting on the q option.  Thus the effect here is to cancel
       one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both quiet flags, two (or more)
       minuses may be used:

       unzip -t--q zipfile
       unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the two are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing, but it
       is reasonably intuitive:  just ignore the first hyphen and go from
       there.  It is also consistent with the behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As suggested by the examples above, the default variable names are
       UNZIP_OPTS for VMS (where the symbol used to install unzip as a foreign
       command would otherwise be confused with the environment variable), and
       UNZIP for all other operating systems.  For compatibility with zip(1L),
       UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don't ask).  If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are
       defined, however, UNZIP takes precedence.  unzip's diagnostic option
       (-v with no zipfile name) can be used to check the values of all four
       possible unzip and zipinfo environment variables.

       The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local
       timezone in order for the -f and -u to operate correctly.  See the
       description of -f above for details.  This variable may also be
       necessary to get timestamps of extracted files to be set correctly.
       The WIN32 (Win9x/ME/NT4/2K/XP/2K3) port of unzip gets the timezone
       configuration from the registry, assuming it is correctly set in the
       Control Panel.  The TZ variable is ignored for this port.


DECRYPTION

       Encrypted archives are fully supported by Info-ZIP software, but due to
       United States export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be
       disabled in your compiled binary.  However, since spring 2000, US
       export restrictions have been liberated, and our source archives do now
       include full crypt code.  In case you need binary distributions with
       crypt support enabled, see the file ``WHERE'' in any Info-ZIP source or
       binary distribution for locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a
       version for crypt support, either attempt to test or extract an
       encrypted archive, or else check unzip's diagnostic screen (see the -v
       option above) for ``[decryption]'' as one of the special compilation
       options.

       As noted above, the -P option may be used to supply a password on the
       command line, but at a cost in security.  The preferred decryption
       method is simply to extract normally; if a zipfile member is encrypted,
       unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is typed.
       unzip continues to use the same password as long as it appears to be
       valid, by testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The correct password
       will always check out against the header, but there is a 1-in-256
       chance that an incorrect password will as well.  (This is a security
       feature of the PKWARE zipfile format; it helps prevent brute-force
       attacks that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing
       only the header.)  In the case that an incorrect password is given but
       it passes the header test anyway, either an incorrect CRC will be
       generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during the
       extraction because the ``decrypted'' bytes do not constitute a valid
       compressed data stream.

       If the first password fails the header check on some file, unzip will
       prompt for another password, and so on until all files are extracted.
       If a password is not known, entering a null password (that is, just a
       carriage return or ``Enter'') is taken as a signal to skip all further
       prompting.  Only unencrypted files in the archive(s) will thereafter be
       extracted.  (In fact, that's not quite true; older versions of zip(1L)
       and zipcloak(1L) allowed null passwords, so unzip checks each encrypted
       file to see if the null password works.  This may result in ``false
       positives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example, passwords with
       accented European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or
       other archivers.  This problem stems from the use of multiple encoding
       methods for such characters, including Latin-1 (ISO 8859-1) and OEM
       code page 850.  DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page; Windows PKZIP
       2.50 uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP); Info-
       ZIP uses the OEM code page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but ISO coding
       (Latin-1 etc.) everywhere else; and Nico Mak's WinZip 6.x does not
       allow 8-bit passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts to use the
       default character set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate
       one (e.g., OEM code page) to test passwords.  On EBCDIC systems, if
       both of these fail, EBCDIC encoding will be tested as a last resort.
       (EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because there are no known
       archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO character encodings
       other than Latin-1 are not supported.  The new addition of (partially)
       Unicode (resp.  UTF-8) support in UnZip 6.0 has not yet been adapted to
       the encryption password handling in unzip.  On systems that use UTF-8
       as native character encoding, unzip simply tries decryption with the
       native UTF-8 encoded password; the built-in attempts to check the
       password in translated encoding have not yet been adapted for UTF-8
       support and will consequently fail.


EXAMPLES

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters.zip into the
       current directory and subdirectories below it, creating any
       subdirectories as necessary:

       unzip letters

       To extract all members of letters.zip into the current directory only:

       unzip -j letters

       To test letters.zip, printing only a summary message indicating whether
       the archive is OK or not:

       unzip -tq letters

       To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only the
       summaries:

       unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell
       expands wildcards, as in Unix; double quotes could have been used
       instead, as in the source examples below.)  To extract to standard
       output all members of letters.zip whose names end in .tex, auto-
       converting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output
       into more(1):

       unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

       To extract the binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it to
       a printing program:

       unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--*.f, *.c, *.h, and
       Makefile--into the /tmp directory:

       unzip source.zip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the double quotes are necessary only in Unix and only if globbing is
       turned on).  To extract all FORTRAN and C source files, regardless of
       case (e.g., both *.c and *.C, and any makefile, Makefile, MAKEFILE or
       similar):

       unzip -C source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names
       to lowercase and convert the line-endings of all of the files to the
       local standard (without respect to any files that might be marked
       ``binary''):

       unzip -aaCL source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To extract only newer versions of the files already in the current
       directory, without querying (NOTE:  be careful of unzipping in one
       timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP archives other than those
       created by Zip 2.1 or later contain no timezone information, and a
       ``newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be older):

       unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory
       and to create any files not already there (same caveat as previous
       example):

       unzip -uo sources

       To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options
       are stored in environment variables, whether decryption support was
       compiled in, the compiler with which unzip was compiled, etc.:

       unzip -v

       In the last five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to
       -q.  To do a singly quiet listing:

       unzip -l file.zip

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

       unzip -ql file.zip

       (Note that the ``.zip'' is generally not necessary.)  To do a standard
       listing:

       unzip --ql file.zip
       or
       unzip -l-q file.zip
       or
       unzip -l--q file.zip
       (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)


TIPS

       The current maintainer, being a lazy sort, finds it very useful to
       define a pair of aliases:  tt for ``unzip -tq'' and ii for ``unzip -Z''
       (or ``zipinfo'').  One may then simply type ``tt zipfile'' to test an
       archive, something that is worth making a habit of doing.  With luck
       unzip will report ``No errors detected in compressed data of
       zipfile.zip,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment
       variable to ``-aL'' and is tempted to add ``-C'' as well.  His ZIPINFO
       variable is set to ``-z''.


DIAGNOSTICS

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by
       PKWARE and takes on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              1      one or more warning errors were encountered, but
                     processing completed successfully anyway.  This includes
                     zipfiles where one or more files was skipped due to
                     unsupported compression method or encryption with an
                     unknown password.

              2      a generic error in the zipfile format was detected.
                     Processing may have completed successfully anyway; some
                     broken zipfiles created by other archivers have simple
                     work-arounds.

              3      a severe error in the zipfile format was detected.
                     Processing probably failed immediately.

              4      unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more
                     buffers during program initialization.

              5      unzip was unable to allocate memory or unable to obtain a
                     tty to read the decryption password(s).

              6      unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression
                     to disk.

              7      unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory
                     decompression.

              8      [currently not used]

              9      the specified zipfiles were not found.

              10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

              11     no matching files were found.

              50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

              51     the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.

              80     the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or
                     similar)

              81     testing or extraction of one or more files failed due to
                     unsupported compression methods or unsupported
                     decryption.

              82     no files were found due to bad decryption password(s).
                     (If even one file is successfully processed, however, the
                     exit status is 1.)

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-
       looking things, so unzip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.
       The current mapping is as follows:   1 (success) for normal exit,
       0x7fff0001 for warning errors, and (0x7fff000? +
       16*normal_unzip_exit_status) for all other errors, where the `?' is 2
       (error) for unzip values 2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for the
       remaining ones (3-8, 50, 51).  In addition, there is a compilation
       option to expand upon this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results in
       a human-readable explanation of what the error status means.


BUGS

       Multi-part archives are not yet supported, except in conjunction with
       zip.  (All parts must be concatenated together in order, and then ``zip
       -F'' (for zip 2.x) or ``zip -FF'' (for zip 3.x) must be performed on
       the concatenated archive in order to ``fix'' it.  Also, zip 3.0 and
       later can combine multi-part (split) archives into a combined single-
       file archive using ``zip -s- inarchive -O outarchive''.  See the zip 3
       manual page for more information.)  This will definitely be corrected
       in the next major release.

       Archives read from standard input are not yet supported, except with
       funzip (and then only the first member of the archive can be
       extracted).

       Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords with accented
       European characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other
       archivers.  See the discussion in DECRYPTION above.

       unzip's -M (``more'') option tries to take into account automatic
       wrapping of long lines. However, the code may fail to detect the
       correct wrapping locations. First, TAB characters (and similar control
       sequences) are not taken into account, they are handled as ordinary
       printable characters.  Second, depending on the actual system / OS
       port, unzip may not detect the true screen geometry but rather rely on
       "commonly used" default dimensions.  The correct handling of tabs would
       require the implementation of a query for the actual tabulator setup on
       the output console.

       Dates, times and permissions of stored directories are not restored
       except under Unix. (On Windows NT and successors, timestamps are now
       restored.)

       [MS-DOS] When extracting or testing files from an archive on a
       defective floppy diskette, if the ``Fail'' option is chosen from DOS's
       ``Abort, Retry, Fail?'' message, older versions of unzip may hang the
       system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed, but
       control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC,
       not always reproducible).  This was apparently due either to a hardware
       bug (cache memory) or an operating system bug (improper handling of
       page faults?).  Since Ultrix has been abandoned in favor of Digital
       Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.

       [Unix] Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block
       devices and character devices are not restored even if they are somehow
       represented in the zipfile, nor are hard-linked files relinked.
       Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular files,
       directories and symbolic (soft) links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if
       the -o (``overwrite all'') option is given.  This is a limitation of
       the operating system; because directories only have a creation time
       associated with them, unzip has no way to determine whether the stored
       attributes are newer or older than those on disk.  In practice this may
       mean a two-pass approach is required:  first unpack the archive
       normally (with or without freshening/updating existing files), then
       overwrite just the directory entries (e.g., ``unzip -o foo */'').

       [VMS] When extracting to another directory, only the [.foo] syntax is
       accepted for the -d option; the simple Unix foo syntax is silently
       ignored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir syntax).

       [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query only
       allows skipping, overwriting or renaming; there should additionally be
       a choice for creating a new version of the file.  In fact, the
       ``overwrite'' choice does create a new version; the old version is not
       overwritten or deleted.


SEE ALSO

       funzip(1L), zip(1L), zipcloak(1L), zipgrep(1L), zipinfo(1L),
       zipnote(1L), zipsplit(1L)


URL

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at
       http://www.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/
       or
       ftp://ftp.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/ .


AUTHORS

       The primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-
       Bugs workgroup) are:  Ed Gordon (Zip, general maintenance, shared code,
       Zip64, Win32, Unix, Unicode); Christian Spieler (UnZip maintenance
       coordination, VMS, MS-DOS, Win32, shared code, general Zip and UnZip
       integration and optimization); Onno van der Linden (Zip); Mike White
       (Win32, Windows GUI, Windows DLLs); Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2, Win32);
       Steven M. Schweda (VMS, Unix, support of new features); Paul Kienitz
       (Amiga, Win32, Unicode); Chris Herborth (BeOS, QNX, Atari); Jonathan
       Hudson (SMS/QDOS); Sergio Monesi (Acorn RISC OS); Harald Denker (Atari,
       MVS); John Bush (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter Goatley (VMS, Info-ZIP Site
       maintenance); Steve Salisbury (Win32); Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI),
       Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32, Zip64); and Dave Smith (Tandem NSK).

       The following people were former members of the Info-ZIP development
       group and provided major contributions to key parts of the current
       code: Greg ``Cave Newt'' Roelofs (UnZip, unshrink decompression); Jean-
       loup Gailly (deflate compression); Mark Adler (inflate decompression,
       fUnZip).

       The author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's was based
       is Samuel H. Smith; Carl Mascott did the first Unix port; and David P.
       Kirschbaum organized and led Info-ZIP in its early days with Keith
       Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20.  The full
       list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large; please refer to
       the CONTRIBS file in the UnZip source distribution for a relatively
       complete version.


VERSIONS

       v1.2 15 Mar 89
         Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0  9 Sep 89
         Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x fall 1989
         many Usenet contributors
       v3.0  1 May 90
         Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1 15 Aug 90
         Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0  1 Dec 90
         Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1 12 May 91
         Info-ZIP
       v4.2 20 Mar 92
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0 21 Aug 92
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01     15 Jan 93
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1  7 Feb 94
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11      2 Aug 94
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12     28 Aug 94
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2 30 Apr 96
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3 22 Apr 97
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31     31 May 97
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32      3 Nov 97
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4 28 Nov 98
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41     16 Apr 00
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42     14 Jan 01
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5 17 Feb 02
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.51     22 May 04
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.52     28 Feb 05
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v6.0 20 Apr 09
         Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

Info-ZIP                     20 April 2009 (v6.0)                    UNZIP(1L)

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