gpg



GPG(1)                       GNU Privacy Guard 1.4                      GPG(1)


NAME

       gpg - OpenPGP encryption and signing tool


SYNOPSIS

       gpg [--homedir dir] [--options file] [options] command [args]


DESCRIPTION

       gpg is the OpenPGP only version of the GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG). It is
       a tool to provide digital encryption and signing services using the
       OpenPGP standard. gpg features complete key management and all bells
       and whistles you can expect from a decent OpenPGP implementation.

       This is the standalone version of gpg.  For desktop use you should
       consider using gpg2 from the GnuPG-2 package
        ([On some platforms gpg2 is installed under the name gpg]).


RETURN VALUE

       The program returns 0 if everything was fine, 1 if at least a signature
       was bad, and other error codes for fatal errors.


WARNINGS

       Use a *good* password for your user account and a *good* passphrase to
       protect your secret key. This passphrase is the weakest part of the
       whole system. Programs to do dictionary attacks on your secret keyring
       are very easy to write and so you should protect your "~/.gnupg/"
       directory very well.

       Keep in mind that, if this program is used over a network (telnet), it
       is *very* easy to spy out your passphrase!

       If you are going to verify detached signatures, make sure that the
       program knows about it; either give both filenames on the command line
       or use '-' to specify STDIN.


INTEROPERABILITY

       GnuPG tries to be a very flexible implementation of the OpenPGP
       standard. In particular, GnuPG implements many of the optional parts of
       the standard, such as the SHA-512 hash, and the ZLIB and BZIP2
       compression algorithms. It is important to be aware that not all
       OpenPGP programs implement these optional algorithms and that by
       forcing their use via the --cipher-algo, --digest-algo, --cert-digest-
       algo, or --compress-algo options in GnuPG, it is possible to create a
       perfectly valid OpenPGP message, but one that cannot be read by the
       intended recipient.

       There are dozens of variations of OpenPGP programs available, and each
       supports a slightly different subset of these optional algorithms.  For
       example, until recently, no (unhacked) version of PGP supported the
       BLOWFISH cipher algorithm. A message using BLOWFISH simply could not be
       read by a PGP user. By default, GnuPG uses the standard OpenPGP
       preferences system that will always do the right thing and create
       messages that are usable by all recipients, regardless of which OpenPGP
       program they use. Only override this safe default if you really know
       what you are doing.

       If you absolutely must override the safe default, or if the preferences
       on a given key are invalid for some reason, you are far better off
       using the --pgp6, --pgp7, or --pgp8 options. These options are safe as
       they do not force any particular algorithms in violation of OpenPGP,
       but rather reduce the available algorithms to a "PGP-safe" list.


COMMANDS

       Commands are not distinguished from options except for the fact that
       only one command is allowed.

       gpg may be run with no commands, in which case it will perform a
       reasonable action depending on the type of file it is given as input
       (an encrypted message is decrypted, a signature is verified, a file
       containing keys is listed).

       Please remember that option as well as command parsing stops as soon as
       a non-option is encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using
       the special option --.

   Commands not specific to the function

       --version
              Print the program version and licensing information.  Note that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --help

       -h     Print a usage message summarizing the most useful command line
              options.  Note that you cannot abbreviate this command.

       --warranty
              Print warranty information.

       --dump-options
              Print a list of all available options and commands.  Note that
              you cannot abbreviate this command.

   Commands to select the type of operation

       --sign

       -s     Make a signature. This command may be combined with --encrypt
              (for a signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a signed
              and symmetrically encrypted message), or --encrypt and
              --symmetric together (for a signed message that may be decrypted
              via a secret key or a passphrase).  The key to be used for
              signing is chosen by default or can be set with the --local-user
              and --default-key options.

       --clearsign
              Make a clear text signature.  The content in a clear text
              signature is readable without any special software. OpenPGP
              software is only needed to verify the signature.  Clear text
              signatures may modify end-of-line whitespace for platform
              independence and are not intended to be reversible.  The key to
              be used for signing is chosen by default or can be set with the
              --local-user and --default-key options.

       --detach-sign

       -b     Make a detached signature.

       --encrypt

       -e     Encrypt data. This option may be combined with --sign (for a
              signed and encrypted message), --symmetric (for a message that
              may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase), or --sign
              and --symmetric together (for a signed message that may be
              decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --symmetric

       -c     Encrypt with a symmetric cipher using a passphrase. The default
              symmetric cipher used is CAST5, but may be chosen with the
              --cipher-algo option. This option may be combined with --sign
              (for a signed and symmetrically encrypted message), --encrypt
              (for a message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a
              passphrase), or --sign and --encrypt together (for a signed
              message that may be decrypted via a secret key or a passphrase).

       --store
              Store only (make a simple RFC1991 literal data packet).

       --decrypt

       -d     Decrypt the file given on the command line (or STDIN if no file
              is specified) and write it to STDOUT (or the file specified with
              --output). If the decrypted file is signed, the signature is
              also verified. This command differs from the default operation,
              as it never writes to the filename which is included in the file
              and it rejects files which don't begin with an encrypted
              message.

       --verify
              Assume that the first argument is a signed file and verify it
              without generating any output.  With no arguments, the signature
              packet is read from STDIN.  If only a one argument is given, it
              is expected to be a complete signature.

              With more than 1 argument, the first should be a detached
              signature and the remaining files ake up the the signed data. To
              read the signed data from STDIN, use '-' as the second filename.
              For security reasons a detached signature cannot read the signed
              material from STDIN without denoting it in the above way.

              Note: If the option --batch is not used, gpg may assume that a
              single argument is a file with a detached signature and it will
              try to find a matching data file by stripping certain suffixes.
              Using this historical feature to verify a detached signature is
              strongly discouraged; always specify the data file too.

              Note: When verifying a cleartext signature, gpg verifies only
              what makes up the cleartext signed data and not any extra data
              outside of the cleartext signature or header lines following
              directly the dash marker line.  The option --output may be used
              to write out the actual signed data; but there are other
              pitfalls with this format as well.  It is suggested to avoid
              cleartext signatures in favor of detached signatures.

       --multifile
              This modifies certain other commands to accept multiple files
              for processing on the command line or read from STDIN with each
              filename on a separate line. This allows for many files to be
              processed at once. --multifile may currently be used along with
              --verify, --encrypt, and --decrypt. Note that --multifile
              --verify may not be used with detached signatures.

       --verify-files
              Identical to --multifile --verify.

       --encrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --encrypt.

       --decrypt-files
              Identical to --multifile --decrypt.

       --list-keys

       -k

       --list-public-keys
              List all keys from the public keyrings, or just the keys given
              on the command line.

              -k is slightly different from --list-keys in that it allows only
              for one argument and takes the second argument as the keyring to
              search.  This is for command line compatibility with PGP 2 and
              has been removed in gpg2.

              Avoid using the output of this command in scripts or other
              programs as it is likely to change as GnuPG changes. See --with-
              colons for a machine-parseable key listing command that is
              appropriate for use in scripts and other programs.

       --list-secret-keys

       -K     List all keys from the secret keyrings, or just the ones given
              on the command line. A # after the letters sec means that the
              secret key is not usable (for example, if it was created via
              --export-secret-subkeys).

       --list-sigs
              Same as --list-keys, but the signatures are listed too.

              For each signature listed, there are several flags in between
              the "sig" tag and keyid. These flags give additional information
              about each signature. From left to right, they are the numbers
              1-3 for certificate check level (see --ask-cert-level), "L" for
              a local or non-exportable signature (see --lsign-key), "R" for a
              nonRevocable signature (see the --edit-key command "nrsign"),
              "P" for a signature that contains a policy URL (see --cert-
              policy-url), "N" for a signature that contains a notation (see
              --cert-notation), "X" for an eXpired signature (see --ask-cert-
              expire), and the numbers 1-9 or "T" for 10 and above to indicate
              trust signature levels (see the --edit-key command "tsign").

       --check-sigs
              Same as --list-sigs, but the signatures are verified.  Note that
              for performance reasons the revocation status of a signing key
              is not shown.

              The status of the verification is indicated by a flag directly
              following the "sig" tag (and thus before the flags described
              above for --list-sigs).  A "!" indicates that the signature has
              been successfully verified, a "-" denotes a bad signature and a
              "%" is used if an error occurred while checking the signature
              (e.g. a non supported algorithm).

       --fingerprint
              List all keys (or the specified ones) along with their
              fingerprints. This is the same output as --list-keys but with
              the additional output of a line with the fingerprint. May also
              be combined with --list-sigs or --check-sigs.  If this command
              is given twice, the fingerprints of all secondary keys are
              listed too.

       --list-packets
              List only the sequence of packets. This is mainly useful for
              debugging.

       --card-edit
              Present a menu to work with a smartcard. The subcommand "help"
              provides an overview on available commands. For a detailed
              description, please see the Card HOWTO at
              https://gnupg.org/documentation/howtos.html#GnuPG-cardHOWTO .

       --card-status
              Show the content of the smart card.

       --change-pin
              Present a menu to allow changing the PIN of a smartcard. This
              functionality is also available as the subcommand "passwd" with
              the --card-edit command.

       --delete-key name
              Remove key from the public keyring. In batch mode either --yes
              is required or the key must be specified by fingerprint. This is
              a safeguard against accidental deletion of multiple keys.


       --delete-secret-key name
              Remove key from the secret keyring. In batch mode the key must
              be specified by fingerprint.

       --delete-secret-and-public-key name
              Same as --delete-key, but if a secret key exists, it will be
              removed first. In batch mode the key must be specified by
              fingerprint.

       --export
              Either export all keys from all keyrings (default keyrings and
              those registered via option --keyring), or if at least one name
              is given, those of the given name. The exported keys are written
              to STDOUT or to the file given with option --output.  Use
              together with --armor to mail those keys.

       --send-keys key IDs
              Similar to --export but sends the keys to a keyserver.
              Fingerprints may be used instead of key IDs. Option --keyserver
              must be used to give the name of this keyserver. Don't send your
              complete keyring to a keyserver --- select only those keys which
              are new or changed by you.  If no key IDs are given, gpg does
              nothing.

       --export-secret-keys

       --export-secret-subkeys
              Same as --export, but exports the secret keys instead.  The
              exported keys are written to STDOUT or to the file given with
              option --output.  This command is often used along with the
              option --armor to allow easy printing of the key for paper
              backup; however the external tool paperkey does a better job for
              creating backups on paper.  Note that exporting a secret key can
              be a security risk if the exported keys are send over an
              insecure channel.

              The second form of the command has the special property to
              render the secret part of the primary key useless; this is a GNU
              extension to OpenPGP and other implementations can not be
              expected to successfully import such a key.  Its intended use is
              to generated a full key with an additional signing subkey on a
              dedicated machine and then using this command to export the key
              without the primary key to the main machine.

              See the option --simple-sk-checksum if you want to import an
              exported secret key into ancient OpenPGP implementations.

       --import

       --fast-import
              Import/merge keys. This adds the given keys to the keyring. The
              fast version is currently just a synonym.

              There are a few other options which control how this command
              works.  Most notable here is the --import-options merge-only
              option which does not insert new keys but does only the merging
              of new signatures, user-IDs and subkeys.

       --recv-keys key IDs
              Import the keys with the given key IDs from a keyserver. Option
              --keyserver must be used to give the name of this keyserver.

       --refresh-keys
              Request updates from a keyserver for keys that already exist on
              the local keyring. This is useful for updating a key with the
              latest signatures, user IDs, etc. Calling this with no arguments
              will refresh the entire keyring. Option --keyserver must be used
              to give the name of the keyserver for all keys that do not have
              preferred keyservers set (see --keyserver-options honor-
              keyserver-url).

       --search-keys names
              Search the keyserver for the given names. Multiple names given
              here will be joined together to create the search string for the
              keyserver.  Option --keyserver must be used to give the name of
              this keyserver.  Keyservers that support different search
              methods allow using the syntax specified in "How to specify a
              user ID" below. Note that different keyserver types support
              different search methods. Currently only LDAP supports them all.

       --fetch-keys URIs
              Retrieve keys located at the specified URIs. Note that different
              installations of GnuPG may support different protocols (HTTP,
              FTP, LDAP, etc.)

       --update-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance. This command iterates over all
              keys and builds the Web of Trust. This is an interactive command
              because it may have to ask for the "ownertrust" values for keys.
              The user has to give an estimation of how far she trusts the
              owner of the displayed key to correctly certify (sign) other
              keys. GnuPG only asks for the ownertrust value if it has not yet
              been assigned to a key. Using the --edit-key menu, the assigned
              value can be changed at any time.

       --check-trustdb
              Do trust database maintenance without user interaction. From
              time to time the trust database must be updated so that expired
              keys or signatures and the resulting changes in the Web of Trust
              can be tracked. Normally, GnuPG will calculate when this is
              required and do it automatically unless --no-auto-check-trustdb
              is set. This command can be used to force a trust database check
              at any time. The processing is identical to that of --update-
              trustdb but it skips keys with a not yet defined "ownertrust".

              For use with cron jobs, this command can be used together with
              --batch in which case the trust database check is done only if a
              check is needed. To force a run even in batch mode add the
              option --yes.

       --export-ownertrust
              Send the ownertrust values to STDOUT. This is useful for backup
              purposes as these values are the only ones which can't be re-
              created from a corrupted trustdb.  Example:
                  gpg --export-ownertrust > otrust.txt

       --import-ownertrust
              Update the trustdb with the ownertrust values stored in files
              (or STDIN if not given); existing values will be overwritten.
              In case of a severely damaged trustdb and if you have a recent
              backup of the ownertrust values (e.g. in the file `otrust.txt',
              you may re-create the trustdb using these commands:
                  cd ~/.gnupg
                  rm trustdb.gpg
                  gpg --import-ownertrust < otrust.txt

       --rebuild-keydb-caches
              When updating from version 1.0.6 to 1.0.7 this command should be
              used to create signature caches in the keyring. It might be
              handy in other situations too.

       --print-md algo

       --print-mds
              Print message digest of algorithm ALGO for all given files or
              STDIN.  With the second form (or a deprecated "*" as algo)
              digests for all available algorithms are printed.

       --gen-random 0|1|2 count
              Emit count random bytes of the given quality level 0, 1 or 2. If
              count is not given or zero, an endless sequence of random bytes
              will be emitted.  If used with --armor the output will be base64
              encoded.  PLEASE, don't use this command unless you know what
              you are doing; it may remove precious entropy from the system!

       --gen-prime mode bits
              Use the source, Luke :-). The output format is still subject to
              change.

       --enarmor

       --dearmor
              Pack or unpack an arbitrary input into/from an OpenPGP ASCII
              armor.  This is a GnuPG extension to OpenPGP and in general not
              very useful.

   How to manage your keys

       This section explains the main commands for key management

       --gen-key
              Generate a new key pair using teh current default parameters.
              This is the standard command to create a new key.

              There is also a feature which allows you to create keys in batch
              mode. See the the manual section ``Unattended key generation''
              on how to use this.


       --gen-revoke name
              Generate a revocation certificate for the complete key. To
              revoke a subkey or a signature, use the --edit command.

       --desig-revoke name
              Generate a designated revocation certificate for a key. This
              allows a user (with the permission of the keyholder) to revoke
              someone else's key.

       --edit-key
              Present a menu which enables you to do most of the key
              management related tasks.  It expects the specification of a key
              on the command line.

              uid n  Toggle selection of user ID or photographic user ID with
                     index n.  Use * to select all and 0 to deselect all.

              key n  Toggle selection of subkey with index n.  Use * to select
                     all and 0 to deselect all.

              sign   Make a signature on key of user name If the key is not
                     yet signed by the default user (or the users given with
                     -u), the program displays the information of the key
                     again, together with its fingerprint and asks whether it
                     should be signed. This question is repeated for all users
                     specified with -u.

              lsign  Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-
                     exportable and will therefore never be used by others.
                     This may be used to make keys valid only in the local
                     environment.

              nrsign Same as "sign" but the signature is marked as non-
                     revocable and can therefore never be revoked.

              tsign  Make a trust signature. This is a signature that combines
                     the notions of certification (like a regular signature),
                     and trust (like the "trust" command). It is generally
                     only useful in distinct communities or groups.

              Note that "l" (for local / non-exportable), "nr" (for non-
              revocable, and "t" (for trust) may be freely mixed and prefixed
              to "sign" to create a signature of any type desired.

              delsig Delete a signature. Note that it is not possible to
                     retract a signature, once it has been send to the public
                     (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that case you better use
                     revsig.

              revsig Revoke a signature. For every signature which has been
                     generated by one of the secret keys, GnuPG asks whether a
                     revocation certificate should be generated.

              check  Check the signatures on all selected user IDs.

              adduid Create an additional user ID.

              addphoto
                     Create a photographic user ID. This will prompt for a
                     JPEG file that will be embedded into the user ID. Note
                     that a very large JPEG will make for a very large key.
                     Also note that some programs will display your JPEG
                     unchanged (GnuPG), and some programs will scale it to fit
                     in a dialog box (PGP).

              showphoto
                     Display the selected photographic user ID.

              deluid Delete a user ID or photographic user ID.  Note that it
                     is not possible to retract a user id, once it has been
                     send to the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that case
                     you better use revuid.

              revuid Revoke a user ID or photographic user ID.

              primary
                     Flag the current user id as the primary one, removes the
                     primary user id flag from all other user ids and sets the
                     timestamp of all affected self-signatures one second
                     ahead. Note that setting a photo user ID as primary makes
                     it primary over other photo user IDs, and setting a
                     regular user ID as primary makes it primary over other
                     regular user IDs.

              keyserver
                     Set a preferred keyserver for the specified user ID(s).
                     This allows other users to know where you prefer they get
                     your key from. See --keyserver-options honor-keyserver-
                     url for more on how this works.  Setting a value of
                     "none" removes an existing preferred keyserver.

              notation
                     Set a name=value notation for the specified user ID(s).
                     See --cert-notation for more on how this works. Setting a
                     value of "none" removes all notations, setting a notation
                     prefixed with a minus sign (-) removes that notation, and
                     setting a notation name (without the =value) prefixed
                     with a minus sign removes all notations with that name.

              pref   List preferences from the selected user ID. This shows
                     the actual preferences, without including any implied
                     preferences.

              showpref
                     More verbose preferences listing for the selected user
                     ID. This shows the preferences in effect by including the
                     implied preferences of 3DES (cipher), SHA-1 (digest), and
                     Uncompressed (compression) if they are not already
                     included in the preference list. In addition, the
                     preferred keyserver and signature notations (if any) are
                     shown.

              setpref string
                     Set the list of user ID preferences to string for all (or
                     just the selected) user IDs. Calling setpref with no
                     arguments sets the preference list to the default (either
                     built-in or set via --default-preference-list), and
                     calling setpref with "none" as the argument sets an empty
                     preference list. Use gpg --version to get a list of
                     available algorithms. Note that while you can change the
                     preferences on an attribute user ID (aka "photo ID"),
                     GnuPG does not select keys via attribute user IDs so
                     these preferences will not be used by GnuPG.

                     When setting preferences, you should list the algorithms
                     in the order which you'd like to see them used by someone
                     else when encrypting a message to your key.  If you don't
                     include 3DES, it will be automatically added at the end.
                     Note that there are many factors that go into choosing an
                     algorithm (for example, your key may not be the only
                     recipient), and so the remote OpenPGP application being
                     used to send to you may or may not follow your exact
                     chosen order for a given message.  It will, however, only
                     choose an algorithm that is present on the preference
                     list of every recipient key.  See also the
                     INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER OPENPGP PROGRAMS section
                     below.

              addkey Add a subkey to this key.

              addcardkey
                     Generate a subkey on a card and add it to this key.

              keytocard
                     Transfer the selected secret subkey (or the primary key
                     if no subkey has been selected) to a smartcard. The
                     secret key in the keyring will be replaced by a stub if
                     the key could be stored successfully on the card and you
                     use the save command later. Only certain key types may be
                     transferred to the card. A sub menu allows you to select
                     on what card to store the key. Note that it is not
                     possible to get that key back from the card - if the card
                     gets broken your secret key will be lost unless you have
                     a backup somewhere.

              bkuptocard file
                     Restore the given file to a card. This command may be
                     used to restore a backup key (as generated during card
                     initialization) to a new card. In almost all cases this
                     will be the encryption key. You should use this command
                     only with the corresponding public key and make sure that
                     the file given as argument is indeed the backup to
                     restore. You should then select 2 to restore as
                     encryption key.  You will first be asked to enter the
                     passphrase of the backup key and then for the Admin PIN
                     of the card.

              delkey Remove a subkey (secondart key). Note that it is not
                     possible to retract a subkey, once it has been send to
                     the public (i.e. to a keyserver).  In that case you
                     better use revkey.

              revkey Revoke a subkey.

              expire Change the key or subkey expiration time. If a subkey is
                     selected, the expiration time of this subkey will be
                     changed. With no selection, the key expiration of the
                     primary key is changed.

              trust  Change the owner trust value for the key. This updates
                     the trust-db immediately and no save is required.

              disable

              enable Disable or enable an entire key. A disabled key can not
                     normally be used for encryption.

              addrevoker
                     Add a designated revoker to the key. This takes one
                     optional argument: "sensitive". If a designated revoker
                     is marked as sensitive, it will not be exported by
                     default (see export-options).

              passwd Change the passphrase of the secret key.

              toggle Toggle between public and secret key listing.

              clean  Compact (by removing all signatures except the selfsig)
                     any user ID that is no longer usable (e.g. revoked, or
                     expired). Then, remove any signatures that are not usable
                     by the trust calculations.  Specifically, this removes
                     any signature that does not validate, any signature that
                     is superseded by a later signature, revoked signatures,
                     and signatures issued by keys that are not present on the
                     keyring.

              minimize
                     Make the key as small as possible. This removes all
                     signatures from each user ID except for the most recent
                     self-signature.

              cross-certify
                     Add cross-certification signatures to signing subkeys
                     that may not currently have them. Cross-certification
                     signatures protect against a subtle attack against
                     signing subkeys. See --require-cross-certification.  All
                     new keys generated have this signature by default, so
                     this option is only useful to bring older keys up to
                     date.

              save   Save all changes to the key rings and quit.


              quit   Quit the program without updating the key rings.

              The listing shows you the key with its secondary keys and all
              user ids.  The primary user id is indicated by a dot, and
              selected keys or user ids are indicated by an asterisk.  The
              trust value is displayed with the primary key: the first is the
              assigned owner trust and the second is the calculated trust
              value. Letters are used for the values:

              -      No ownertrust assigned / not yet calculated.

              e      Trust calculation has failed; probably due to an expired
                     key.

              q      Not enough information for calculation.

              n      Never trust this key.

              m      Marginally trusted.

              f      Fully trusted.

              u      Ultimately trusted.

       --sign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key. This is a shortcut
              version of the subcommand "sign" from --edit.

       --lsign-key name
              Signs a public key with your secret key but marks it as non-
              exportable. This is a shortcut version of the subcommand "lsign"
              from --edit-key.


OPTIONS

       gpg features a bunch of options to control the exact behaviour and to
       change the default configuration.

       Long options can be put in an options file (default
       "~/.gnupg/gpg.conf"). Short option names will not work - for example,
       "armor" is a valid option for the options file, while "a" is not. Do
       not write the 2 dashes, but simply the name of the option and any
       required arguments. Lines with a hash ('#') as the first non-white-
       space character are ignored. Commands may be put in this file too, but
       that is not generally useful as the command will execute automatically
       with every execution of gpg.

       Please remember that option parsing stops as soon as a non-option is
       encountered, you can explicitly stop parsing by using the special
       option --.

   How to change the configuration

       These options are used to change the configuration and are usually
       found in the option file.

       --default-key name
              Use name as the default key to sign with. If this option is not
              used, the default key is the first key found in the secret
              keyring.  Note that -u or --local-user overrides this option.

       --default-recipient name
              Use name as default recipient if option --recipient is not used
              and don't ask if this is a valid one. name must be non-empty.

       --default-recipient-self
              Use the default key as default recipient if option --recipient
              is not used and don't ask if this is a valid one. The default
              key is the first one from the secret keyring or the one set with
              --default-key.

       --no-default-recipient
              Reset --default-recipient and --default-recipient-self.

       -v, --verbose
              Give more information during processing. If used twice, the
              input data is listed in detail.

       --no-verbose
              Reset verbose level to 0.

       -q, --quiet
              Try to be as quiet as possible.

       --batch

       --no-batch
              Use batch mode.  Never ask, do not allow interactive commands.
              --no-batch disables this option.  This option is commonly used
              for unattended operations.

              WARNING: Unattended operation bears a higher risk of being
              exposed to security attacks.  In particular any unattended use
              of GnuPG which involves the use of secret keys should take care
              not to provide an decryption oracle.  There are several standard
              pre-cautions against being used as an oracle.  For example never
              return detailed error messages or any diagnostics printed by
              your software to the remote site.  Consult with an expert in
              case of doubt.

              Note that even with a filename given on the command line, gpg
              might still need to read from STDIN (in particular if gpg
              figures that the input is a detached signature and no data file
              has been specified).  Thus if you do not want to feed data via
              STDIN, you should connect STDIN to `/dev/null'.

       --no-tty
              Make sure that the TTY (terminal) is never used for any output.
              This option is needed in some cases because GnuPG sometimes
              prints warnings to the TTY even if --batch is used.

       --yes  Assume "yes" on most questions.

       --no   Assume "no" on most questions.

       --list-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options
              used when listing keys and signatures (that is, --list-keys,
              --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, --list-secret-keys, and the
              --edit-key functions).  Options can be prepended with a no-
              (after the two dashes) to give the opposite meaning.  The
              options are:

              show-photos
                     Causes --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, and
                     --list-secret-keys to display any photo IDs attached to
                     the key.  Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.  Does
                     not work with --with-colons: see --attribute-fd for the
                     appropriate way to get photo data for scripts and other
                     frontends.

              show-usage
                     Show usage information for keys and subkeys in the
                     standard key listing.  This is a list of letters
                     indicating the allowed usage for a key (E=encryption,
                     S=signing, C=certification, A=authentication).  Defaults
                     to no.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs
                     listings.  Defaults to no.

              show-notations

              show-std-notations

              show-user-notations
                     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature
                     notations in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show any preferred keyserver URL in the --list-sigs or
                     --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of user IDs during key
                     listings.  Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked and expired user IDs in key listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-subkeys
                     Show revoked and expired subkeys in key listings.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-keyring
                     Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to
                     show which keyring a given key resides on. Defaults to
                     no.

              show-sig-expire
                     Show signature expiration dates (if any) during --list-
                     sigs or --check-sigs listings. Defaults to no.

              show-sig-subpackets
                     Include signature subpackets in the key listing. This
                     option can take an optional argument list of the
                     subpackets to list. If no argument is passed, list all
                     subpackets. Defaults to no. This option is only
                     meaningful when using --with-colons along with --list-
                     sigs or --check-sigs.

       --verify-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options
              used when verifying signatures. Options can be prepended with a
              `no-' to give the opposite meaning. The options are:

              show-photos
                     Display any photo IDs present on the key that issued the
                     signature.  Defaults to no. See also --photo-viewer.

              show-policy-urls
                     Show policy URLs in the signature being verified.
                     Defaults to no.

              show-notations

              show-std-notations

              show-user-notations
                     Show all, IETF standard, or user-defined signature
                     notations in the signature being verified. Defaults to
                     IETF standard.

              show-keyserver-urls
                     Show any preferred keyserver URL in the signature being
                     verified.  Defaults to no.

              show-uid-validity
                     Display the calculated validity of the user IDs on the
                     key that issued the signature. Defaults to no.

              show-unusable-uids
                     Show revoked and expired user IDs during signature
                     verification.  Defaults to no.

              show-primary-uid-only
                     Show only the primary user ID during signature
                     verification.  That is all the AKA lines as well as photo
                     Ids are not shown with the signature verification status.

              pka-lookups
                     Enable PKA lookups to verify sender addresses. Note that
                     PKA is based on DNS, and so enabling this option may
                     disclose information on when and what signatures are
                     verified or to whom data is encrypted. This is similar to
                     the "web bug" described for the auto-key-retrieve
                     feature.

              pka-trust-increase
                     Raise the trust in a signature to full if the signature
                     passes PKA validation. This option is only meaningful if
                     pka-lookups is set.

       --enable-large-rsa

       --disable-large-rsa
              With --gen-key and --batch, enable the creation of larger RSA
              secret keys than is generally recommended (up to 8192 bits).
              These large keys are more expensive to use, and their signatures
              and certifications are also larger.

       --enable-dsa2

       --disable-dsa2
              Enable hash truncation for all DSA keys even for old DSA Keys up
              to 1024 bit.  This is also the default with --openpgp.  Note
              that older versions of GnuPG also required this flag to allow
              the generation of DSA larger than 1024 bit.

       --photo-viewer string
              This is the command line that should be run to view a photo ID.
              "%i" will be expanded to a filename containing the photo. "%I"
              does the same, except the file will not be deleted once the
              viewer exits.  Other flags are "%k" for the key ID, "%K" for the
              long key ID, "%f" for the key fingerprint, "%t" for the
              extension of the image type (e.g. "jpg"), "%T" for the MIME type
              of the image (e.g. "image/jpeg"), "%v" for the single-character
              calculated validity of the image being viewed (e.g. "f"), "%V"
              for the calculated validity as a string (e.g.  "full"), "%U" for
              a base32 encoded hash of the user ID, and "%%" for an actual
              percent sign. If neither %i or %I are present, then the photo
              will be supplied to the viewer on standard input.

              The default viewer is "xloadimage -fork -quiet -title 'KeyID
              0x%k' STDIN". Note that if your image viewer program is not
              secure, then executing it from GnuPG does not make it secure.

       --exec-path string
              Sets a list of directories to search for photo viewers and
              keyserver helpers. If not provided, keyserver helpers use the
              compiled-in default directory, and photo viewers use the $PATH
              environment variable.  Note, that on W32 system this value is
              ignored when searching for keyserver helpers.

       --keyring file
              Add file to the current list of keyrings. If file begins with a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in
              the GnuPG home directory ("~/.gnupg" if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

              Note that this adds a keyring to the current list. If the intent
              is to use the specified keyring alone, use --keyring along with
              --no-default-keyring.

       --secret-keyring file
              Same as --keyring but for the secret keyrings.

       --primary-keyring file
              Designate file as the primary public keyring. This means that
              newly imported keys (via --import or keyserver --recv-from) will
              go to this keyring.

       --trustdb-name file
              Use file instead of the default trustdb. If file begins with a
              tilde and a slash, these are replaced by the $HOME directory. If
              the filename does not contain a slash, it is assumed to be in
              the GnuPG home directory (`~/.gnupg' if --homedir or $GNUPGHOME
              is not used).

       --homedir dir
              Set the name of the home directory to dir. If this option is not
              used, the home directory defaults to `~/.gnupg'.  It is only
              recognized when given on the command line.  It also overrides
              any home directory stated through the environment variable
              `GNUPGHOME' or (on Windows systems) by means of the Registry
              entry HKCU\Software\GNU\GnuPG:HomeDir.

              On Windows systems it is possible to install GnuPG as a portable
              application.  In this case only this command line option is
              considered, all other ways to set a home directory are ignored.

              To install GnuPG as a portable application under Windows, create
              an empty file name `gpgconf.ctl' in the same directory as the
              tool `gpgconf.exe'.  The root of the installation is than that
              directory; or, if `gpgconf.exe' has been installed directly
              below a directory named `bin', its parent directory.  You also
              need to make sure that the following directories exist and are
              writable: `ROOT/home' for the GnuPG home and
              `ROOT/var/cache/gnupg' for internal cache files.

       --pcsc-driver file
              Use file to access the smartcard reader. The current default is
              `libpcsclite.so.1' for GLIBC based systems,
              `/System/Library/Frameworks/PCSC.framework/PCSC' for MAC OS X,
              `winscard.dll' for Windows and `libpcsclite.so' for other
              systems.

       --disable-ccid
              Disable the integrated support for CCID compliant readers. This
              allows to fall back to one of the other drivers even if the
              internal CCID driver can handle the reader. Note, that CCID
              support is only available if libusb was available at build time.

       --reader-port number_or_string
              This option may be used to specify the port of the card
              terminal. A value of 0 refers to the first serial device; add
              32768 to access USB devices. The default is 32768 (first USB
              device). PC/SC or CCID readers might need a string here; run the
              program in verbose mode to get a list of available readers. The
              default is then the first reader found.

       --display-charset name
              Set the name of the native character set. This is used to
              convert some informational strings like user IDs to the proper
              UTF-8 encoding.  Note that this has nothing to do with the
              character set of data to be encrypted or signed; GnuPG does not
              recode user-supplied data. If this option is not used, the
              default character set is determined from the current locale. A
              verbosity level of 3 shows the chosen set.  Valid values for
              name are:

              iso-8859-1
                     This is the Latin 1 set.

              iso-8859-2
                     The Latin 2 set.

              iso-8859-15
                     This is currently an alias for the Latin 1 set.

              koi8-r The usual Russian set (rfc1489).

              utf-8  Bypass all translations and assume that the OS uses
                     native UTF-8 encoding.

       --utf8-strings

       --no-utf8-strings
              Assume that command line arguments are given as UTF8 strings.
              The default (--no-utf8-strings) is to assume that arguments are
              encoded in the character set as specified by --display-charset.
              These options affect all following arguments. Both options may
              be used multiple times.

       --options file
              Read options from file and do not try to read them from the
              default options file in the homedir (see --homedir). This option
              is ignored if used in an options file.

       --no-options
              Shortcut for --options /dev/null. This option is detected before
              an attempt to open an option file.  Using this option will also
              prevent the creation of a `~/.gnupg' homedir.

       -z n

       --compress-level n

       --bzip2-compress-level n
              Set compression level to n for the ZIP and ZLIB compression
              algorithms. The default is to use the default compression level
              of zlib (normally 6). --bzip2-compress-level sets the
              compression level for the BZIP2 compression algorithm
              (defaulting to 6 as well). This is a different option from
              --compress-level since BZIP2 uses a significant amount of memory
              for each additional compression level.  -z sets both. A value of
              0 for n disables compression.

       --bzip2-decompress-lowmem
              Use a different decompression method for BZIP2 compressed files.
              This alternate method uses a bit more than half the memory, but
              also runs at half the speed. This is useful under extreme low
              memory circumstances when the file was originally compressed at
              a high --bzip2-compress-level.

       --mangle-dos-filenames

       --no-mangle-dos-filenames
              Older version of Windows cannot handle filenames with more than
              one dot. --mangle-dos-filenames causes GnuPG to replace (rather
              than add to) the extension of an output filename to avoid this
              problem. This option is off by default and has no effect on non-
              Windows platforms.

       --ask-cert-level

       --no-ask-cert-level
              When making a key signature, prompt for a certification level.
              If this option is not specified, the certification level used is
              set via --default-cert-level. See --default-cert-level for
              information on the specific levels and how they are used. --no-
              ask-cert-level disables this option. This option defaults to no.

       --default-cert-level n
              The default to use for the check level when signing a key.

              0 means you make no particular claim as to how carefully you
              verified the key.

              1 means you believe the key is owned by the person who claims to
              own it but you could not, or did not verify the key at all. This
              is useful for a "persona" verification, where you sign the key
              of a pseudonymous user.

              2 means you did casual verification of the key. For example,
              this could mean that you verified the key fingerprint and
              checked the user ID on the key against a photo ID.

              3 means you did extensive verification of the key. For example,
              this could mean that you verified the key fingerprint with the
              owner of the key in person, and that you checked, by means of a
              hard to forge document with a photo ID (such as a passport) that
              the name of the key owner matches the name in the user ID on the
              key, and finally that you verified (by exchange of email) that
              the email address on the key belongs to the key owner.

              Note that the examples given above for levels 2 and 3 are just
              that: examples. In the end, it is up to you to decide just what
              "casual" and "extensive" mean to you.

              This option defaults to 0 (no particular claim).

       --min-cert-level
              When building the trust database, treat any signatures with a
              certification level below this as invalid. Defaults to 2, which
              disregards level 1 signatures. Note that level 0 "no particular
              claim" signatures are always accepted.

       --trusted-key long key ID
              Assume that the specified key (which must be given as a full 8
              byte key ID) is as trustworthy as one of your own secret keys.
              This option is useful if you don't want to keep your secret keys
              (or one of them) online but still want to be able to check the
              validity of a given recipient's or signator's key.

       --trust-model pgp|classic|direct|always|auto
              Set what trust model GnuPG should follow. The models are:

              pgp    This is the Web of Trust combined with trust signatures
                     as used in PGP 5.x and later. This is the default trust
                     model when creating a new trust database.

              classic
                     This is the standard Web of Trust as introduced by PGP 2.

              direct Key validity is set directly by the user and not
                     calculated via the Web of Trust.

              always Skip key validation and assume that used keys are always
                     fully valid. You generally won't use this unless you are
                     using some external validation scheme. This option also
                     suppresses the "[uncertain]" tag printed with signature
                     checks when there is no evidence that the user ID is
                     bound to the key.  Note that this trust model still does
                     not allow the use of expired, revoked, or disabled keys.

              auto   Select the trust model depending on whatever the internal
                     trust database says. This is the default model if such a
                     database already exists.

       --auto-key-locate parameters

       --no-auto-key-locate
              GnuPG can automatically locate and retrieve keys as needed using
              this option. This happens when encrypting to an email address
              (in the "user@example.com" form), and there are no
              user@example.com keys on the local keyring.  This option takes
              any number of the following mechanisms, in the order they are to
              be tried:

              cert   Locate a key using DNS CERT, as specified in rfc4398.

              pka    Locate a key using DNS PKA.

              ldap   Using DNS Service Discovery, check the domain in question
                     for any LDAP keyservers to use.  If this fails, attempt
                     to locate the key using the PGP Universal method of
                     checking 'ldap://keys.(thedomain)'.

              keyserver
                     Locate a key using whatever keyserver is defined using
                     the --keyserver option.

              keyserver-URL
                     In addition, a keyserver URL as used in the --keyserver
                     option may be used here to query that particular
                     keyserver.

              local  Locate the key using the local keyrings.  This mechanism
                     allows to select the order a local key lookup is done.
                     Thus using '--auto-key-locate local' is identical to
                     --no-auto-key-locate.

              nodefault
                     This flag disables the standard local key lookup, done
                     before any of the mechanisms defined by the --auto-key-
                     locate are tried.  The position of this mechanism in the
                     list does not matter.  It is not required if local is
                     also used.

              clear  Clear all defined mechanisms.  This is useful to override
                     mechanisms given in a config file.

       --keyid-format short|0xshort|long|0xlong
              Select how to display key IDs. "short" is the traditional
              8-character key ID. "long" is the more accurate (but less
              convenient) 16-character key ID. Add an "0x" to either to
              include an "0x" at the beginning of the key ID, as in
              0x99242560.  Note that this option is ignored if the option
              --with-colons is used.

       --keyserver name
              Use name as your keyserver. This is the server that --recv-keys,
              --send-keys, and --search-keys will communicate with to receive
              keys from, send keys to, and search for keys on. The format of
              the name is a URI: `scheme:[//]keyservername[:port]' The scheme
              is the type of keyserver: "hkp" for the HTTP (or compatible)
              keyservers, "ldap" for the LDAP keyservers, or "mailto" for the
              Graff email keyserver. Note that your particular installation of
              GnuPG may have other keyserver types available as well.
              Keyserver schemes are case-insensitive. After the keyserver
              name, optional keyserver configuration options may be provided.
              These are the same as the global --keyserver-options from below,
              but apply only to this particular keyserver.

              Most keyservers synchronize with each other, so there is
              generally no need to send keys to more than one server. The
              keyserver hkp://keys.gnupg.net uses round robin DNS to give a
              different keyserver each time you use it.

       --keyserver-options name=value1
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              the keyserver. Options can be prefixed with a `no-' to give the
              opposite meaning. Valid import-options or export-options may be
              used here as well to apply to importing (--recv-key) or
              exporting (--send-key) a key from a keyserver. While not all
              options are available for all keyserver types, some common
              options are:

              include-revoked
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that are marked on the keyserver as revoked. Note that
                     not all keyservers differentiate between revoked and
                     unrevoked keys, and for such keyservers this option is
                     meaningless. Note also that most keyservers do not have
                     cryptographic verification of key revocations, and so
                     turning this option off may result in skipping keys that
                     are incorrectly marked as revoked.

              include-disabled
                     When searching for a key with --search-keys, include keys
                     that are marked on the keyserver as disabled. Note that
                     this option is not used with HKP keyservers.

              auto-key-retrieve
                     This option enables the automatic retrieving of keys from
                     a keyserver when verifying signatures made by keys that
                     are not on the local keyring.

                     Note that this option makes a "web bug" like behavior
                     possible.  Keyserver operators can see which keys you
                     request, so by sending you a message signed by a brand
                     new key (which you naturally will not have on your local
                     keyring), the operator can tell both your IP address and
                     the time when you verified the signature.

              honor-keyserver-url
                     When using --refresh-keys, if the key in question has a
                     preferred keyserver URL, then use that preferred
                     keyserver to refresh the key from. In addition, if auto-
                     key-retrieve is set, and the signature being verified has
                     a preferred keyserver URL, then use that preferred
                     keyserver to fetch the key from. Defaults to yes.

              honor-pka-record
                     If auto-key-retrieve is set, and the signature being
                     verified has a PKA record, then use the PKA information
                     to fetch the key. Defaults to yes.

              include-subkeys
                     When receiving a key, include subkeys as potential
                     targets. Note that this option is not used with HKP
                     keyservers, as they do not support retrieving keys by
                     subkey id.

              use-temp-files
                     On most Unix-like platforms, GnuPG communicates with the
                     keyserver helper program via pipes, which is the most
                     efficient method. This option forces GnuPG to use
                     temporary files to communicate. On some platforms (such
                     as Win32 and RISC OS), this option is always enabled.

              keep-temp-files
                     If using `use-temp-files', do not delete the temp files
                     after using them. This option is useful to learn the
                     keyserver communication protocol by reading the temporary
                     files.

              verbose
                     Tell the keyserver helper program to be more verbose.
                     This option can be repeated multiple times to increase
                     the verbosity level.

              timeout
                     Tell the keyserver helper program how long (in seconds)
                     to try and perform a keyserver action before giving up.
                     Note that performing multiple actions at the same time
                     uses this timeout value per action.  For example, when
                     retrieving multiple keys via --recv-keys, the timeout
                     applies separately to each key retrieval, and not to the
                     --recv-keys command as a whole. Defaults to 30 seconds.

              http-proxy=value
                     Set the proxy to use for HTTP and HKP keyservers.  This
                     overrides the "http_proxy" environment variable, if any.

              max-cert-size
                     When retrieving a key via DNS CERT, only accept keys up
                     to this size.  Defaults to 16384 bytes.

              debug  Turn on debug output in the keyserver helper program.
                     Note that the details of debug output depends on which
                     keyserver helper program is being used, and in turn, on
                     any libraries that the keyserver helper program uses
                     internally (libcurl, openldap, etc).

              check-cert
                     Enable certificate checking if the keyserver presents one
                     (for hkps or ldaps).  Defaults to on.


              ca-cert-file
                     Provide a certificate store to override the system
                     default.  Only necessary if check-cert is enabled, and
                     the keyserver is using a certificate that is not present
                     in a system default certificate list.

                     Note that depending on the SSL library that the keyserver
                     helper is built with, this may actually be a directory or
                     a file.

       --completes-needed n
              Number of completely trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 1).

       --marginals-needed n
              Number of marginally trusted users to introduce a new key signer
              (defaults to 3)

       --max-cert-depth n
              Maximum depth of a certification chain (default is 5).

       --simple-sk-checksum
              Secret keys are integrity protected by using a SHA-1 checksum.
              This method is part of the upcoming enhanced OpenPGP
              specification but GnuPG already uses it as a countermeasure
              against certain attacks.  Old applications don't understand this
              new format, so this option may be used to switch back to the old
              behaviour. Using this option bears a security risk. Note that
              using this option only takes effect when the secret key is
              encrypted - the simplest way to make this happen is to change
              the passphrase on the key (even changing it to the same value is
              acceptable).

       --no-sig-cache
              Do not cache the verification status of key signatures.  Caching
              gives a much better performance in key listings. However, if you
              suspect that your public keyring is not save against write
              modifications, you can use this option to disable the caching.
              It probably does not make sense to disable it because all kind
              of damage can be done if someone else has write access to your
              public keyring.

       --no-sig-create-check
              GnuPG normally verifies each signature right after creation to
              protect against bugs and hardware malfunctions which could leak
              out bits from the secret key. This extra verification needs some
              time (about 115% for DSA keys), and so this option can be used
              to disable it.  However, due to the fact that the signature
              creation needs manual interaction, this performance penalty does
              not matter in most settings.

       --auto-check-trustdb

       --no-auto-check-trustdb
              If GnuPG feels that its information about the Web of Trust has
              to be updated, it automatically runs the --check-trustdb command
              internally.  This may be a time consuming process. --no-auto-
              check-trustdb disables this option.

       --use-agent

       --no-use-agent
              Try to use the GnuPG-Agent.  With this option, GnuPG first tries
              to connect to the agent before it asks for a passphrase. --no-
              use-agent disables this option.

       --gpg-agent-info
              Override the value of the environment variable 'GPG_AGENT_INFO'.
              This is only used when --use-agent has been given.  Given that
              this option is not anymore used by gpg2, it should be avoided if
              possible.

       --lock-once
              Lock the databases the first time a lock is requested and do not
              release the lock until the process terminates.

       --lock-multiple
              Release the locks every time a lock is no longer needed. Use
              this to override a previous --lock-once from a config file.

       --lock-never
              Disable locking entirely. This option should be used only in
              very special environments, where it can be assured that only one
              process is accessing those files. A bootable floppy with a
              stand-alone encryption system will probably use this. Improper
              usage of this option may lead to data and key corruption.

       --exit-on-status-write-error
              This option will cause write errors on the status FD to
              immediately terminate the process. That should in fact be the
              default but it never worked this way and thus we need an option
              to enable this, so that the change won't break applications
              which close their end of a status fd connected pipe too early.
              Using this option along with --enable-progress-filter may be
              used to cleanly cancel long running gpg operations.

       --limit-card-insert-tries n
              With n greater than 0 the number of prompts asking to insert a
              smartcard gets limited to N-1. Thus with a value of 1 gpg won't
              at all ask to insert a card if none has been inserted at
              startup. This option is useful in the configuration file in case
              an application does not know about the smartcard support and
              waits ad infinitum for an inserted card.

       --no-random-seed-file
              GnuPG uses a file to store its internal random pool over
              invocations.  This makes random generation faster; however
              sometimes write operations are not desired. This option can be
              used to achieve that with the cost of slower random generation.

       --no-greeting
              Suppress the initial copyright message.


       --no-secmem-warning
              Suppress the warning about "using insecure memory".

       --no-permission-warning
              Suppress the warning about unsafe file and home directory
              (--homedir) permissions. Note that the permission checks that
              GnuPG performs are not intended to be authoritative, but rather
              they simply warn about certain common permission problems. Do
              not assume that the lack of a warning means that your system is
              secure.

              Note that the warning for unsafe --homedir permissions cannot be
              suppressed in the gpg.conf file, as this would allow an attacker
              to place an unsafe gpg.conf file in place, and use this file to
              suppress warnings about itself. The --homedir permissions
              warning may only be suppressed on the command line.

       --no-mdc-warning
              Suppress the warning about missing MDC integrity protection.

       --require-secmem

       --no-require-secmem
              Refuse to run if GnuPG cannot get secure memory. Defaults to no
              (i.e. run, but give a warning).

       --require-cross-certification

       --no-require-cross-certification
              When verifying a signature made from a subkey, ensure that the
              cross certification "back signature" on the subkey is present
              and valid.  This protects against a subtle attack against
              subkeys that can sign.  Defaults to --require-cross-
              certification for gpg.

       --expert

       --no-expert
              Allow the user to do certain nonsensical or "silly" things like
              signing an expired or revoked key, or certain potentially
              incompatible things like generating unusual key types. This also
              disables certain warning messages about potentially incompatible
              actions. As the name implies, this option is for experts only.
              If you don't fully understand the implications of what it allows
              you to do, leave this off. --no-expert disables this option.

   Key related options

       --recipient name

       -r     Encrypt for user id name. If this option or --hidden-recipient
              is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user-id unless --default-
              recipient is given.

       --hidden-recipient name

       -R     Encrypt for user ID name, but hide the key ID of this user's
              key. This option helps to hide the receiver of the message and
              is a limited countermeasure against traffic analysis. If this
              option or --recipient is not specified, GnuPG asks for the user
              ID unless --default-recipient is given.

       --encrypt-to name
              Same as --recipient but this one is intended for use in the
              options file and may be used with your own user-id as an
              "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there are other
              recipients given either by use of --recipient or by the asked
              user id.  No trust checking is performed for these user ids and
              even disabled keys can be used.

       --hidden-encrypt-to name
              Same as --hidden-recipient but this one is intended for use in
              the options file and may be used with your own user-id as a
              hidden "encrypt-to-self". These keys are only used when there
              are other recipients given either by use of --recipient or by
              the asked user id.  No trust checking is performed for these
              user ids and even disabled keys can be used.

       --no-encrypt-to
              Disable the use of all --encrypt-to and --hidden-encrypt-to
              keys.

       --group name=value1
              Sets up a named group, which is similar to aliases in email
              programs.  Any time the group name is a recipient (-r or
              --recipient), it will be expanded to the values specified.
              Multiple groups with the same name are automatically merged into
              a single group.

              The values are key IDs or fingerprints, but any key description
              is accepted. Note that a value with spaces in it will be treated
              as two different values. Note also there is only one level of
              expansion --- you cannot make an group that points to another
              group. When used from the command line, it may be necessary to
              quote the argument to this option to prevent the shell from
              treating it as multiple arguments.

       --ungroup name
              Remove a given entry from the --group list.

       --no-groups
              Remove all entries from the --group list.

       --local-user name

       -u     Use name as the key to sign with. Note that this option
              overrides --default-key.

       --try-all-secrets
              Don't look at the key ID as stored in the message but try all
              secret keys in turn to find the right decryption key. This
              option forces the behaviour as used by anonymous recipients
              (created by using --throw-keyids or --hidden-recipient) and
              might come handy in case where an encrypted message contains a
              bogus key ID.

       --skip-hidden-recipients

       --no-skip-hidden-recipients
              During decryption skip all anonymous recipients.  This option
              helps in the case that people use the hidden recipients feature
              to hide there own encrypt-to key from others.  If oneself has
              many secret keys this may lead to a major annoyance because all
              keys are tried in turn to decrypt soemthing which was not really
              intended for it.  The drawback of this option is that it is
              currently not possible to decrypt a message which includes real
              anonymous recipients.

   Input and Output

       --armor

       -a     Create ASCII armored output.  The default is to create the
              binary OpenPGP format.

       --no-armor
              Assume the input data is not in ASCII armored format.

       --output file

       -o file
              Write output to file.

       --max-output n
              This option sets a limit on the number of bytes that will be
              generated when processing a file. Since OpenPGP supports various
              levels of compression, it is possible that the plaintext of a
              given message may be significantly larger than the original
              OpenPGP message. While GnuPG works properly with such messages,
              there is often a desire to set a maximum file size that will be
              generated before processing is forced to stop by the OS limits.
              Defaults to 0, which means "no limit".

       --import-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              importing keys. Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:

              import-local-sigs
                     Allow importing key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not generally useful unless a shared keyring scheme is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.

              keep-ownertrust
                     Normally possible still existing ownertrust values of a
                     key are cleared if a key is imported.  This is in general
                     desirable so that a formerly deleted key does not
                     automatically gain an ownertrust values merely due to
                     import.  On the other hand it is sometimes necessary to
                     re-import a trusted set of keys again but keeping already
                     assigned ownertrust values.  This can be achived by using
                     this option.

              repair-pks-subkey-bug
                     During import, attempt to repair the damage caused by the
                     PKS keyserver bug (pre version 0.9.6) that mangles keys
                     with multiple subkeys. Note that this cannot completely
                     repair the damaged key as some crucial data is removed by
                     the keyserver, but it does at least give you back one
                     subkey. Defaults to no for regular --import and to yes
                     for keyserver --recv-keys.

              merge-only
                     During import, allow key updates to existing keys, but do
                     not allow any new keys to be imported. Defaults to no.

              import-clean
                     After import, compact (remove all signatures except the
                     self-signature) any user IDs from the new key that are
                     not usable.  Then, remove any signatures from the new key
                     that are not usable.  This includes signatures that were
                     issued by keys that are not present on the keyring. This
                     option is the same as running the --edit-key command
                     "clean" after import. Defaults to no.

              import-minimal
                     Import the smallest key possible. This removes all
                     signatures except the most recent self-signature on each
                     user ID. This option is the same as running the --edit-
                     key command "minimize" after import.  Defaults to no.

       --export-options parameters
              This is a space or comma delimited string that gives options for
              exporting keys. Options can be prepended with a `no-' to give
              the opposite meaning. The options are:

              export-local-sigs
                     Allow exporting key signatures marked as "local". This is
                     not generally useful unless a shared keyring scheme is
                     being used.  Defaults to no.

              export-attributes
                     Include attribute user IDs (photo IDs) while exporting.
                     This is useful to export keys if they are going to be
                     used by an OpenPGP program that does not accept attribute
                     user IDs. Defaults to yes.

              export-sensitive-revkeys
                     Include designated revoker information that was marked as
                     "sensitive". Defaults to no.

              export-reset-subkey-passwd
                     When using the --export-secret-subkeys command, this
                     option resets the passphrases for all exported subkeys to
                     empty. This is useful when the exported subkey is to be
                     used on an unattended machine where a passphrase doesn't
                     necessarily make sense. Defaults to no.

              export-clean
                     Compact (remove all signatures from) user IDs on the key
                     being exported if the user IDs are not usable. Also, do
                     not export any signatures that are not usable. This
                     includes signatures that were issued by keys that are not
                     present on the keyring. This option is the same as
                     running the --edit-key command "clean" before export
                     except that the local copy of the key is not modified.
                     Defaults to no.

              export-minimal
                     Export the smallest key possible. This removes all
                     signatures except the most recent self-signature on each
                     user ID. This option is the same as running the --edit-
                     key command "minimize" before export except that the
                     local copy of the key is not modified. Defaults to no.

       --with-colons
              Print key listings delimited by colons. Note that the output
              will be encoded in UTF-8 regardless of any --display-charset
              setting. This format is useful when GnuPG is called from scripts
              and other programs as it is easily machine parsed. The details
              of this format are documented in the file `doc/DETAILS', which
              is included in the GnuPG source distribution.

       --fixed-list-mode
              Do not merge primary user ID and primary key in --with-colon
              listing mode and print all timestamps as seconds since
              1970-01-01.

       --with-fingerprint
              Same as the command --fingerprint but changes only the format of
              the output and may be used together with another command.

   OpenPGP protocol specific options.

       -t, --textmode

       --no-textmode
              Treat input files as text and store them in the OpenPGP
              canonical text form with standard "CRLF" line endings. This also
              sets the necessary flags to inform the recipient that the
              encrypted or signed data is text and may need its line endings
              converted back to whatever the local system uses. This option is
              useful when communicating between two platforms that have
              different line ending conventions (UNIX-like to Mac, Mac to
              Windows, etc). --no-textmode disables this option, and is the
              default.

              If -t (but not --textmode) is used together with armoring and
              signing, this enables clearsigned messages. This kludge is
              needed for command-line compatibility with command-line versions
              of PGP; normally you would use --sign or --clearsign to select
              the type of the signature.

       --force-v3-sigs

       --no-force-v3-sigs
              OpenPGP states that an implementation should generate v4
              signatures but PGP versions 5 through 7 only recognize v4
              signatures on key material. This option forces v3 signatures for
              signatures on data.  Note that this option implies --no-ask-sig-
              expire, and unsets --sig-policy-url, --sig-notation, and --sig-
              keyserver-url, as these features cannot be used with v3
              signatures.  --no-force-v3-sigs disables this option.  Defaults
              to no.

       --force-v4-certs

       --no-force-v4-certs
              Always use v4 key signatures even on v3 keys. This option also
              changes the default hash algorithm for v3 RSA keys from MD5 to
              SHA-1.  --no-force-v4-certs disables this option.

       --force-mdc
              Force the use of encryption with a modification detection code.
              This is always used with the newer ciphers (those with a
              blocksize greater than 64 bits), or if all of the recipient keys
              indicate MDC support in their feature flags.

       --disable-mdc
              Disable the use of the modification detection code. Note that by
              using this option, the encrypted message becomes vulnerable to a
              message modification attack.

       --personal-cipher-preferences string
              Set the list of personal cipher preferences to string.  Use gpg
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely
              override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences,
              as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all
              recipients.  The most highly ranked cipher in this list is also
              used for the --symmetric encryption command.

       --personal-digest-preferences string
              Set the list of personal digest preferences to string.  Use gpg
              --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use none to
              set no preference at all.  This allows the user to safely
              override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key preferences,
              as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable by all
              recipients.  The most highly ranked digest algorithm in this
              list is also used when signing without encryption (e.g.
              --clearsign or --sign).

       --personal-compress-preferences string
              Set the list of personal compression preferences to string.  Use
              gpg --version to get a list of available algorithms, and use
              none to set no preference at all.  This allows the user to
              safely override the algorithm chosen by the recipient key
              preferences, as GPG will only select an algorithm that is usable
              by all recipients.  The most highly ranked compression algorithm
              in this list is also used when there are no recipient keys to
              consider (e.g. --symmetric).

       --s2k-cipher-algo name
              Use name as the cipher algorithm used to protect secret keys.
              The default cipher is CAST5. This cipher is also used for
              conventional encryption if --personal-cipher-preferences and
              --cipher-algo is not given.

       --s2k-digest-algo name
              Use name as the digest algorithm used to mangle the passphrases.
              The default algorithm is SHA-1.

       --s2k-mode n
              Selects how passphrases are mangled. If n is 0 a plain
              passphrase (which is not recommended) will be used, a 1 adds a
              salt to the passphrase and a 3 (the default) iterates the whole
              process a number of times (see --s2k-count).  Unless --rfc1991
              is used, this mode is also used for conventional encryption.

       --s2k-count n
              Specify how many times the passphrase mangling is repeated.
              This value may range between 1024 and 65011712 inclusive.  The
              default is inquired from gpg-agent.  Note that not all values in
              the 1024-65011712 range are legal and if an illegal value is
              selected, GnuPG will round up to the nearest legal value.  This
              option is only meaningful if --s2k-mode is 3.

   Compliance options

       These options control what GnuPG is compliant to. Only one of these
       options may be active at a time. Note that the default setting of this
       is nearly always the correct one. See the INTEROPERABILITY WITH OTHER
       OPENPGP PROGRAMS section below before using one of these options.

       --gnupg
              Use standard GnuPG behavior. This is essentially OpenPGP
              behavior (see --openpgp), but with some additional workarounds
              for common compatibility problems in different versions of PGP.
              This is the default option, so it is not generally needed, but
              it may be useful to override a different compliance option in
              the gpg.conf file.

       --openpgp
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict OpenPGP
              behavior. Use this option to reset all previous options like
              --s2k-*, --cipher-algo, --digest-algo and --compress-algo to
              OpenPGP compliant values. All PGP workarounds are disabled.

       --rfc4880
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-4880
              behavior. Note that this is currently the same thing as
              --openpgp.

       --rfc2440
              Reset all packet, cipher and digest options to strict RFC-2440
              behavior.

       --rfc1991
              Try to be more RFC-1991 (PGP 2.x) compliant.  This option is
              deprecated will be removed in GnuPG 2.1.

       --pgp2 Set up all options to be as PGP 2.x compliant as possible, and
              warn if an action is taken (e.g. encrypting to a non-RSA key)
              that will create a message that PGP 2.x will not be able to
              handle. Note that `PGP 2.x' here means `MIT PGP 2.6.2'. There
              are other versions of PGP 2.x available, but the MIT release is
              a good common baseline.

              This option implies --rfc1991 --disable-mdc --no-force-v4-certs
               --escape-from-lines  --force-v3-sigs
               --cipher-algo IDEA --digest-algo MD5 --compress-algo ZIP.  It
              also disables --textmode when encrypting.

              This option is deprecated will be removed in GnuPG 2.1.  The
              reason for dropping PGP-2 support is that the PGP 2 format is
              not anymore considered safe (for example due to the use of the
              broken MD5 algorithm).  Note that the decryption of PGP-2
              created messages will continue to work.

       --pgp6 Set up all options to be as PGP 6 compliant as possible. This
              restricts you to the ciphers IDEA (if the IDEA plugin is
              installed), 3DES, and CAST5, the hashes MD5, SHA1 and RIPEMD160,
              and the compression algorithms none and ZIP. This also disables
              --throw-keyids, and making signatures with signing subkeys as
              PGP 6 does not understand signatures made by signing subkeys.

              This option implies --disable-mdc --escape-from-lines --force-
              v3-sigs.

       --pgp7 Set up all options to be as PGP 7 compliant as possible. This is
              identical to --pgp6 except that MDCs are not disabled, and the
              list of allowable ciphers is expanded to add AES128, AES192,
              AES256, and TWOFISH.

       --pgp8 Set up all options to be as PGP 8 compliant as possible. PGP 8
              is a lot closer to the OpenPGP standard than previous versions
              of PGP, so all this does is disable --throw-keyids and set
              --escape-from-lines.  All algorithms are allowed except for the
              SHA224, SHA384, and SHA512 digests.


   Doing things one usually doesn't want to do.

       -n

       --dry-run
              Don't make any changes (this is not completely implemented).

       --list-only
              Changes the behaviour of some commands. This is like --dry-run
              but different in some cases. The semantic of this command may be
              extended in the future. Currently it only skips the actual
              decryption pass and therefore enables a fast listing of the
              encryption keys.

       -i

       --interactive
              Prompt before overwriting any files.

       --debug-level level
              Select the debug level for investigating problems. level may be
              a numeric value or by a keyword:

              none   No debugging at all.  A value of less than 1 may be used
                     instead of the keyword.

              basic  Some basic debug messages.  A value between 1 and 2 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              advanced
                     More verbose debug messages.  A value between 3 and 5 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              expert Even more detailed messages.  A value between 6 and 8 may
                     be used instead of the keyword.

              guru   All of the debug messages you can get. A value greater
                     than 8 may be used instead of the keyword.  The creation
                     of hash tracing files is only enabled if the keyword is
                     used.

       How these messages are mapped to the actual debugging flags is not
       specified and may change with newer releases of this program. They are
       however carefully selected to best aid in debugging.

       --debug flags
              Set debugging flags. All flags are or-ed and flags may be given
              in C syntax (e.g. 0x0042).

       --debug-all
              Set all useful debugging flags.

       --debug-ccid-driver
              Enable debug output from the included CCID driver for
              smartcards.  Note that this option is only available on some
              system.

       --faked-system-time epoch
              This option is only useful for testing; it sets the system time
              back or forth to epoch which is the number of seconds elapsed
              since the year 1970.  Alternatively epoch may be given as a full
              ISO time string (e.g. "20070924T154812").

       --enable-progress-filter
              Enable certain PROGRESS status outputs. This option allows
              frontends to display a progress indicator while gpg is
              processing larger files.  There is a slight performance overhead
              using it.

       --status-fd n
              Write special status strings to the file descriptor n.  See the
              file DETAILS in the documentation for a listing of them.

       --status-file file
              Same as --status-fd, except the status data is written to file
              file.

       --logger-fd n
              Write log output to file descriptor n and not to STDERR.

       --log-file file

       --logger-file file
              Same as --logger-fd, except the logger data is written to file
              file.  Note that --log-file is only implemented for GnuPG-2.

       --attribute-fd n
              Write attribute subpackets to the file descriptor n. This is
              most useful for use with --status-fd, since the status messages
              are needed to separate out the various subpackets from the
              stream delivered to the file descriptor.

       --attribute-file file
              Same as --attribute-fd, except the attribute data is written to
              file file.

       --comment string

       --no-comments
              Use string as a comment string in clear text signatures and
              ASCII armored messages or keys (see --armor). The default
              behavior is not to use a comment string. --comment may be
              repeated multiple times to get multiple comment strings. --no-
              comments removes all comments.  It is a good idea to keep the
              length of a single comment below 60 characters to avoid problems
              with mail programs wrapping such lines.  Note that comment
              lines, like all other header lines, are not protected by the
              signature.

       --emit-version

       --no-emit-version
              Force inclusion of the version string in ASCII armored output.
              If given once only the name of the program and the major number
              is emitted (default), given twice the minor is also emitted,
              given triple the micro is added, and given quad an operating
              system identification is also emitted.  --no-emit-version
              disables the version line.

       --sig-notation name=value

       --cert-notation name=value

       -N, --set-notation name=value
              Put the name value pair into the signature as notation data.
              name must consist only of printable characters or spaces, and
              must contain a '@' character in the form
              keyname@domain.example.com (substituting the appropriate keyname
              and domain name, of course).  This is to help prevent pollution
              of the IETF reserved notation namespace. The --expert flag
              overrides the '@' check. value may be any printable string; it
              will be encoded in UTF8, so you should check that your
              --display-charset is set correctly. If you prefix name with an
              exclamation mark (!), the notation data will be flagged as
              critical (rfc4880:5.2.3.16). --sig-notation sets a notation for
              data signatures. --cert-notation sets a notation for key
              signatures (certifications). --set-notation sets both.

              There are special codes that may be used in notation names. "%k"
              will be expanded into the key ID of the key being signed, "%K"
              into the long key ID of the key being signed, "%f" into the
              fingerprint of the key being signed, "%s" into the key ID of the
              key making the signature, "%S" into the long key ID of the key
              making the signature, "%g" into the fingerprint of the key
              making the signature (which might be a subkey), "%p" into the
              fingerprint of the primary key of the key making the signature,
              "%c" into the signature count from the OpenPGP smartcard, and
              "%%" results in a single "%". %k, %K, and %f are only meaningful
              when making a key signature (certification), and %c is only
              meaningful when using the OpenPGP smartcard.

       --sig-policy-url string

       --cert-policy-url string

       --set-policy-url string
              Use string as a Policy URL for signatures (rfc4880:5.2.3.20).
              If you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!), the policy URL
              packet will be flagged as critical. --sig-policy-url sets a
              policy url for data signatures. --cert-policy-url sets a policy
              url for key signatures (certifications). --set-policy-url sets
              both.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.

       --sig-keyserver-url string
              Use string as a preferred keyserver URL for data signatures. If
              you prefix it with an exclamation mark (!), the keyserver URL
              packet will be flagged as critical.

              The same %-expandos used for notation data are available here as
              well.


       --set-filename string
              Use string as the filename which is stored inside messages.
              This overrides the default, which is to use the actual filename
              of the file being encrypted.

       --for-your-eyes-only

       --no-for-your-eyes-only
              Set the `for your eyes only' flag in the message. This causes
              GnuPG to refuse to save the file unless the --output option is
              given, and PGP to use a "secure viewer" with a claimed Tempest-
              resistant font to display the message. This option overrides
              --set-filename.  --no-for-your-eyes-only disables this option.

       --use-embedded-filename

       --no-use-embedded-filename
              Try to create a file with a name as embedded in the data. This
              can be a dangerous option as it allows to overwrite files.
              Defaults to no.

       --cipher-algo name
              Use name as cipher algorithm. Running the program with the
              command --version yields a list of supported algorithms. If this
              is not used the cipher algorithm is selected from the
              preferences stored with the key. In general, you do not want to
              use this option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP
              standard.  --personal-cipher-preferences is the safe way to
              accomplish the same thing.

       --digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm. Running the program
              with the command --version yields a list of supported
              algorithms. In general, you do not want to use this option as it
              allows you to violate the OpenPGP standard. --personal-digest-
              preferences is the safe way to accomplish the same thing.

       --compress-algo name
              Use compression algorithm name. "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB
              compression. "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by
              PGP.  "bzip2" is a more modern compression scheme that can
              compress some things better than zip or zlib, but at the cost of
              more memory used during compression and decompression.
              "uncompressed" or "none" disables compression. If this option is
              not used, the default behavior is to examine the recipient key
              preferences to see which algorithms the recipient supports. If
              all else fails, ZIP is used for maximum compatibility.

              ZLIB may give better compression results than ZIP, as the
              compression window size is not limited to 8k. BZIP2 may give
              even better compression results than that, but will use a
              significantly larger amount of memory while compressing and
              decompressing. This may be significant in low memory situations.
              Note, however, that PGP (all versions) only supports ZIP
              compression. Using any algorithm other than ZIP or "none" will
              make the message unreadable with PGP. In general, you do not
              want to use this option as it allows you to violate the OpenPGP
              standard. --personal-compress-preferences is the safe way to
              accomplish the same thing.


       --cert-digest-algo name
              Use name as the message digest algorithm used when signing a
              key. Running the program with the command --version yields a
              list of supported algorithms. Be aware that if you choose an
              algorithm that GnuPG supports but other OpenPGP implementations
              do not, then some users will not be able to use the key
              signatures you make, or quite possibly your entire key.

       --disable-cipher-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as cipher algorithm.  The given name
              will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will still
              get disabled.

       --disable-pubkey-algo name
              Never allow the use of name as public key algorithm.  The given
              name will not be checked so that a later loaded algorithm will
              still get disabled.

       --throw-keyids

       --no-throw-keyids
              Do not put the recipient key IDs into encrypted messages. This
              helps to hide the receivers of the message and is a limited
              countermeasure against traffic analysis. ([Using a little social
              engineering anyone who is able to decrypt the message can check
              whether one of the other recipients is the one he suspects.])
              On the receiving side, it may slow down the decryption process
              because all available secret keys must be tried.  --no-throw-
              keyids disables this option. This option is essentially the same
              as using --hidden-recipient for all recipients.

       --not-dash-escaped
              This option changes the behavior of cleartext signatures so that
              they can be used for patch files. You should not send such an
              armored file via email because all spaces and line endings are
              hashed too. You can not use this option for data which has 5
              dashes at the beginning of a line, patch files don't have this.
              A special armor header line tells GnuPG about this cleartext
              signature option.

       --escape-from-lines

       --no-escape-from-lines
              Because some mailers change lines starting with "From " to
              ">From " it is good to handle such lines in a special way when
              creating cleartext signatures to prevent the mail system from
              breaking the signature. Note that all other PGP versions do it
              this way too.  Enabled by default. --no-escape-from-lines
              disables this option.

       --passphrase-repeat n
              Specify how many times gpg will request a new passphrase be
              repeated.  This is useful for helping memorize a passphrase.
              Defaults to 1 repetition.

       --passphrase-fd n
              Read the passphrase from file descriptor n. Only the first line
              will be read from file descriptor n. If you use 0 for n, the
              passphrase will be read from STDIN. This can only be used if
              only one passphrase is supplied.

       --passphrase-file file
              Read the passphrase from file file. Only the first line will be
              read from file file. This can only be used if only one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, a passphrase stored in a file
              is of questionable security if other users can read this file.
              Don't use this option if you can avoid it.

       --passphrase string
              Use string as the passphrase. This can only be used if only one
              passphrase is supplied. Obviously, this is of very questionable
              security on a multi-user system. Don't use this option if you
              can avoid it.

       --command-fd n
              This is a replacement for the deprecated shared-memory IPC mode.
              If this option is enabled, user input on questions is not
              expected from the TTY but from the given file descriptor. It
              should be used together with --status-fd. See the file
              doc/DETAILS in the source distribution for details on how to use
              it.

       --command-file file
              Same as --command-fd, except the commands are read out of file
              file

       --allow-non-selfsigned-uid

       --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid
              Allow the import and use of keys with user IDs which are not
              self-signed. This is not recommended, as a non self-signed user
              ID is trivial to forge. --no-allow-non-selfsigned-uid disables.

       --allow-freeform-uid
              Disable all checks on the form of the user ID while generating a
              new one. This option should only be used in very special
              environments as it does not ensure the de-facto standard format
              of user IDs.

       --ignore-time-conflict
              GnuPG normally checks that the timestamps associated with keys
              and signatures have plausible values. However, sometimes a
              signature seems to be older than the key due to clock problems.
              This option makes these checks just a warning. See also
              --ignore-valid-from for timestamp issues on subkeys.

       --ignore-valid-from
              GnuPG normally does not select and use subkeys created in the
              future.  This option allows the use of such keys and thus
              exhibits the pre-1.0.7 behaviour. You should not use this option
              unless there is some clock problem. See also --ignore-time-
              conflict for timestamp issues with signatures.

       --ignore-crc-error
              The ASCII armor used by OpenPGP is protected by a CRC checksum
              against transmission errors. Occasionally the CRC gets mangled
              somewhere on the transmission channel but the actual content
              (which is protected by the OpenPGP protocol anyway) is still
              okay. This option allows GnuPG to ignore CRC errors.

       --ignore-mdc-error
              This option changes a MDC integrity protection failure into a
              warning.  This can be useful if a message is partially corrupt,
              but it is necessary to get as much data as possible out of the
              corrupt message.  However, be aware that a MDC protection
              failure may also mean that the message was tampered with
              intentionally by an attacker.

       --no-default-keyring
              Do not add the default keyrings to the list of keyrings. Note
              that GnuPG will not operate without any keyrings, so if you use
              this option and do not provide alternate keyrings via --keyring
              or --secret-keyring, then GnuPG will still use the default
              public or secret keyrings.

       --skip-verify
              Skip the signature verification step. This may be used to make
              the decryption faster if the signature verification is not
              needed.

       --with-key-data
              Print key listings delimited by colons (like --with-colons) and
              print the public key data.

       --fast-list-mode
              Changes the output of the list commands to work faster; this is
              achieved by leaving some parts empty. Some applications don't
              need the user ID and the trust information given in the
              listings. By using this options they can get a faster listing.
              The exact behaviour of this option may change in future
              versions.  If you are missing some information, don't use this
              option.

       --no-literal
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it
              might be useful.

       --set-filesize
              This is not for normal use. Use the source to see for what it
              might be useful.

       --show-session-key
              Display the session key used for one message. See --override-
              session-key for the counterpart of this option.

              We think that Key Escrow is a Bad Thing; however the user should
              have the freedom to decide whether to go to prison or to reveal
              the content of one specific message without compromising all
              messages ever encrypted for one secret key. DON'T USE IT UNLESS
              YOU ARE REALLY FORCED TO DO SO.

       --override-session-key string
              Don't use the public key but the session key string. The format
              of this string is the same as the one printed by --show-session-
              key. This option is normally not used but comes handy in case
              someone forces you to reveal the content of an encrypted
              message; using this option you can do this without handing out
              the secret key.

       --ask-sig-expire

       --no-ask-sig-expire
              When making a data signature, prompt for an expiration time. If
              this option is not specified, the expiration time set via
              --default-sig-expire is used. --no-ask-sig-expire disables this
              option.

       --default-sig-expire
              The default expiration time to use for signature expiration.
              Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
              letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for
              years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to
              "0".

       --ask-cert-expire

       --no-ask-cert-expire
              When making a key signature, prompt for an expiration time. If
              this option is not specified, the expiration time set via
              --default-cert-expire is used. --no-ask-cert-expire disables
              this option.

       --default-cert-expire
              The default expiration time to use for key signature expiration.
              Valid values are "0" for no expiration, a number followed by the
              letter d (for days), w (for weeks), m (for months), or y (for
              years) (for example "2m" for two months, or "5y" for five
              years), or an absolute date in the form YYYY-MM-DD. Defaults to
              "0".

       --allow-secret-key-import
              This is an obsolete option and is not used anywhere.

       --allow-multiple-messages

       --no-allow-multiple-messages
              Allow processing of multiple OpenPGP messages contained in a
              single file or stream.  Some programs that call GPG are not
              prepared to deal with multiple messages being processed
              together, so this option defaults to no.  Note that versions of
              GPG prior to 1.4.7 always allowed multiple messages.

              Warning: Do not use this option unless you need it as a
              temporary workaround!

       --enable-special-filenames
              This options enables a mode in which filenames of the form
              `-&n', where n is a non-negative decimal number, refer to the
              file descriptor n and not to a file with that name.

       --no-expensive-trust-checks
              Experimental use only.

       --preserve-permissions
              Don't change the permissions of a secret keyring back to user
              read/write only. Use this option only if you really know what
              you are doing.

       --default-preference-list string
              Set the list of default preferences to string. This preference
              list is used for new keys and becomes the default for "setpref"
              in the edit menu.

       --default-keyserver-url name
              Set the default keyserver URL to name. This keyserver will be
              used as the keyserver URL when writing a new self-signature on a
              key, which includes key generation and changing preferences.

       --list-config
              Display various internal configuration parameters of GnuPG. This
              option is intended for external programs that call GnuPG to
              perform tasks, and is thus not generally useful. See the file
              `doc/DETAILS' in the source distribution for the details of
              which configuration items may be listed. --list-config is only
              usable with --with-colons set.

       --gpgconf-list
              This command is similar to --list-config but in general only
              internally used by the gpgconf tool.

       --gpgconf-test
              This is more or less dummy action.  However it parses the
              configuration file and returns with failure if the configuration
              file would prevent gpg from startup.  Thus it may be used to run
              a syntax check on the configuration file.

   Deprecated options

       --load-extension name
              Load an extension module. If name does not contain a slash it is
              searched for in the directory configured when GnuPG was built
              (generally "/usr/local/lib/gnupg"). Extensions are not generally
              useful anymore, and the use of this option is deprecated.

       --show-photos

       --no-show-photos
              Causes --list-keys, --list-sigs, --list-public-keys, --list-
              secret-keys, and verifying a signature to also display the photo
              ID attached to the key, if any. See also --photo-viewer. These
              options are deprecated. Use --list-options [no-]show-photos
              and/or --verify-options [no-]show-photos instead.

       --show-keyring
              Display the keyring name at the head of key listings to show
              which keyring a given key resides on. This option is deprecated:
              use --list-options [no-]show-keyring instead.

       --ctapi-driver file
              Use file to access the smartcard reader. The current default is
              `libtowitoko.so'. Note that the use of this interface is
              deprecated; it may be removed in future releases.

       --always-trust
              Identical to --trust-model always. This option is deprecated.

       --show-notation

       --no-show-notation
              Show signature notations in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs
              listings as well as when verifying a signature with a notation
              in it. These options are deprecated. Use --list-options
              [no-]show-notation and/or --verify-options [no-]show-notation
              instead.

       --show-policy-url

       --no-show-policy-url
              Show policy URLs in the --list-sigs or --check-sigs listings as
              well as when verifying a signature with a policy URL in it.
              These options are deprecated. Use --list-options [no-]show-
              policy-url and/or --verify-options [no-]show-policy-url instead.


EXAMPLES

       gpg -se -r Bob file
              sign and encrypt for user Bob

       gpg --clearsign file
              make a clear text signature

       gpg -sb file
              make a detached signature

       gpg -u 0x12345678 -sb file
              make a detached signature with the key 0x12345678

       gpg --list-keys user_ID
              show keys

       gpg --fingerprint user_ID
              show fingerprint


       gpg --verify pgpfile

       gpg --verify sigfile
              Verify the signature of the file but do not output the data. The
              second form is used for detached signatures, where sigfile is
              the detached signature (either ASCII armored or binary) and are
              the signed data; if this is not given, the name of the file
              holding the signed data is constructed by cutting off the
              extension (".asc" or ".sig") of sigfile or by asking the user
              for the filename.


HOW TO SPECIFY A USER ID

       There are different ways to specify a user ID to GnuPG.  Some of them
       are only valid for gpg others are only good for gpgsm.  Here is the
       entire list of ways to specify a key:

       By key Id.
              This format is deduced from the length of the string and its
              content or 0x prefix. The key Id of an X.509 certificate are the
              low 64 bits of its SHA-1 fingerprint.  The use of key Ids is
              just a shortcut, for all automated processing the fingerprint
              should be used.

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
              using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The last four lines of the example give the key ID in their long
              form as internally used by the OpenPGP protocol. You can see the
              long key ID using the option --with-colons.

         234567C4
         0F34E556E
         01347A56A
         0xAB123456

         234AABBCC34567C4
         0F323456784E56EAB
         01AB3FED1347A5612
         0x234AABBCC34567C4

       By fingerprint.
              This format is deduced from the length of the string and its
              content or the 0x prefix.  Note, that only the 20 byte version
              fingerprint is available with gpgsm (i.e. the SHA-1 hash of the
              certificate).

              When using gpg an exclamation mark (!) may be appended to force
              using the specified primary or secondary key and not to try and
              calculate which primary or secondary key to use.

              The best way to specify a key Id is by using the fingerprint.
              This avoids any ambiguities in case that there are duplicated
              key IDs.

         1234343434343434C434343434343434
         123434343434343C3434343434343734349A3434
         0E12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434
         0xE12343434343434343434EAB3484343434343434

       gpgsm also accepts colons between each pair of hexadecimal digits
       because this is the de-facto standard on how to present X.509
       fingerprints.  gpg also allows the use of the space separated SHA-1
       fingerprint as printed by the key listing commands.

       By exact match on OpenPGP user ID.
              This is denoted by a leading equal sign. It does not make sense
              for X.509 certificates.

         =Heinrich Heine <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By exact match on an email address.
              This is indicated by enclosing the email address in the usual
              way with left and right angles.

         <heinrichh@uni-duesseldorf.de>

       By word match.
              All words must match exactly (not case sensitive) but can appear
              in any order in the user ID or a subjects name.  Words are any
              sequences of letters, digits, the underscore and all characters
              with bit 7 set.

         +Heinrich Heine duesseldorf

       By exact match on the subject's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading slash, directly followed by the
              RFC-2253 encoded DN of the subject.  Note that you can't use the
              string printed by "gpgsm --list-keys" because that one as been
              reordered and modified for better readability; use --with-colons
              to print the raw (but standard escaped) RFC-2253 string

         /CN=Heinrich Heine,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on the issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a leading hash mark, directly followed by a
              slash and then directly followed by the rfc2253 encoded DN of
              the issuer.  This should return the Root cert of the issuer.
              See note above.

         #/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By exact match on serial number and issuer's DN.
              This is indicated by a hash mark, followed by the hexadecimal
              representation of the serial number, then followed by a slash
              and the RFC-2253 encoded DN of the issuer. See note above.

         #4F03/CN=Root Cert,O=Poets,L=Paris,C=FR

       By keygrip
              This is indicated by an ampersand followed by the 40 hex digits
              of a keygrip.  gpgsm prints the keygrip when using the command
              --dump-cert.  It does not yet work for OpenPGP keys.

         &D75F22C3F86E355877348498CDC92BD21010A480

       By substring match.
              This is the default mode but applications may want to explicitly
              indicate this by putting the asterisk in front.  Match is not
              case sensitive.

         Heine
         *Heine

       Please note that we have reused the hash mark identifier which was used
       in old GnuPG versions to indicate the so called local-id.  It is not
       anymore used and there should be no conflict when used with X.509
       stuff.

       Using the RFC-2253 format of DNs has the drawback that it is not
       possible to map them back to the original encoding, however we don't
       have to do this because our key database stores this encoding as meta
       data.


FILES

       There are a few configuration files to control certain aspects of gpg's
       operation. Unless noted, they are expected in the current home
       directory (see: [option --homedir]).

       gpg.conf
              This is the standard configuration file read by gpg on startup.
              It may contain any valid long option; the leading two dashes may
              not be entered and the option may not be abbreviated.  This
              default name may be changed on the command line (see: [gpg-
              option --options]).  You should backup this file.

       Note that on larger installations, it is useful to put predefined files
       into the directory `/etc/skel/.gnupg/' so that newly created users
       start up with a working configuration.

       For internal purposes gpg creates and maintains a few other files; They
       all live in in the current home directory (see: [option --homedir]).
       Only the gpg may modify these files.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg
              The public keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the public keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx

       ~/.gnupg/pubring.kbx.lock
              A public keyring and its lock file used by GnuPG versions >= 2.
              It is ignored by GnuPG 1.x

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg
              The secret keyring.  You should backup this file.

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg
              The trust database.  There is no need to backup this file; it is
              better to backup the ownertrust values (see: [option --export-
              ownertrust]).

       ~/.gnupg/trustdb.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the trust database.

       ~/.gnupg/random_seed
              A file used to preserve the state of the internal random pool.

       ~/.gnupg/secring.gpg.lock
              The lock file for the secret keyring.

       ~/.gnupg/openpgp-revocs.d/
              This is the directory where gpg stores pre-generated revocation
              certificates.  The file name corresponds to the OpenPGP
              fingerprint of the respective key.  It is suggested to backup
              those certificates and if the primary private key is not stored
              on the disk to move them to an external storage device.  Anyone
              who can access theses files is able to revoke the corresponding
              key.  You may want to print them out.  You should backup all
              files in this directory and take care to keep this backup closed
              away.

       /usr[/local]/share/gnupg/options.skel
              The skeleton options file.

       /usr[/local]/lib/gnupg/
              Default location for extensions.

       Operation is further controlled by a few environment variables:

       HOME   Used to locate the default home directory.

       GNUPGHOME
              If set directory used instead of "~/.gnupg".

       GPG_AGENT_INFO
              Used to locate the gpg-agent.  This is only honored when --use-
              agent is set.

              The value consists of 3 colon delimited fields: The first is the
              path to the Unix Domain Socket, the second the PID of the gpg-
              agent and the protocol version which should be set to 1. When
              starting the gpg-agent as described in its documentation, this
              variable is set to the correct value. The option --gpg-agent-
              info can be used to override it.

       PINENTRY_USER_DATA
              This value is passed via gpg-agent to pinentry.  It is useful to
              convey extra information to a custom pinentry.

       COLUMNS

       LINES  Used to size some displays to the full size of the screen.

       LANGUAGE
              Apart from its use by GNU, it is used in the W32 version to
              override the language selection done through the Registry.  If
              used and set to a valid and available language name (langid),
              the file with the translation is loaded from

              gpgdir/gnupg.nls/langid.mo.  Here gpgdir is the directory out of
              which the gpg binary has been loaded.  If it can't be loaded the
              Registry is tried and as last resort the native Windows locale
              system is used.


BUGS

       On older systems this program should be installed as setuid(root). This
       is necessary to lock memory pages. Locking memory pages prevents the
       operating system from writing memory pages (which may contain
       passphrases or other sensitive material) to disk. If you get no warning
       message about insecure memory your operating system supports locking
       without being root. The program drops root privileges as soon as locked
       memory is allocated.

       Note also that some systems (especially laptops) have the ability to
       ``suspend to disk'' (also known as ``safe sleep'' or ``hibernate'').
       This writes all memory to disk before going into a low power or even
       powered off mode.  Unless measures are taken in the operating system to
       protect the saved memory, passphrases or other sensitive material may
       be recoverable from it later.

       Before you report a bug you should first search the mailing list
       archives for similar problems and second check whether such a bug has
       already been reported to our bug tracker at http://bugs.gnupg.org .


SEE ALSO

       gpgv(1),

       The full documentation for this tool is maintained as a Texinfo manual.
       If GnuPG and the info program are properly installed at your site, the
       command

         info gnupg

       should give you access to the complete manual including a menu
       structure and an index.

GnuPG 1.4.19                      2016-02-25                            GPG(1)

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